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Full text of "Information and statistics respecting Wilmington, North Carolina, being a report"






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INFORMATION AND STATISTICS 



BESrECTING 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA, 



BEING A REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE PRODUCE 

EXCHANGE. 

PRESENTED TO ITS MEMBERS. APRIL, 1883. 



Eutered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by James .Spruut, in the office of 
the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



WILMINGTON", N. C: 
JACKSON & BELL, WATER-rOWEB TilESSES 

J8S3. 




INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Settlement of Wilmington 5 

Sanitary Condition 8 

City Government 21 

City Finances 23 

Board of Audit and Finance 25 

City Contracts 88 

City Police Department 39 

City Fire Dei)artment 40 

City Hospital 42 

County Government . . « 43 

Sux)erior and Criminal Courts 44 

County Magistrates 45 

Statement of the Financial Condition of New Hanover 

County 47 

Population 49 

Statistics of Population and Schools 50 

Public Schools 51 

Union Free School 57 

Tileston Normal School 62 

Churches 64 

Secret and Benevolent Societies 65 

Ladies Benevolent Society 67 

St. George and St. Andrew Society 68 

Hibernian Benevolent Society , 69 

Seaman's Friend Society 70 

St. James' Home , 73 



INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Newspapers 76 

Commissioners of Navigation and Pilotage. 82 

Port Wardens 93 

Port Charges and Facilities ., 95 

Custom House Returns , 99 

Foreign Carrying Trade 101 

Foreign Consuls and Dates of Appointment 103 

Notaries Public 104 

United States Courts .... 104 

Improvement of Cape Fear River and the Bar, below 

Wilmington 105 

Ocean and River Steam Navigation Companies 112 

Improvement of Cape Fear River between Wilmington 

and Fayetteville ;.114 

Lillington River (Long Creek) Improvements 120 

Dry Docks - 122 

Marine Railway 122 

Wilmington and Weldon R. R 122 

Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta R. R 127 

Carolina Central Railroad 130 

Clinton & Point Caswell Railroad 131 

Dux)lin Canal Company 132 

Inland Water- Way 139 

First National Bank of Wilmington 140 

Bank of New Hanover 141 

Cotton Compresses 143 

Wilmington Cotton Mills 145 

Navassa Guano Company 146 

Southern Ore Company 146 

Cape Fear Tobacco Works 147 

Carolina Rice Mills 148 

Grain Mills 149 

The Acme Manufacturing Comj^any 150 

Turx^entine Distilleries 153 

Wilmington Gas Light Company 154 



VAGlL 

Clarendon Water Works Company 154 

Oakdale Cemetery Comi)any 156 

Chamlber of Commerce 168 

Quarantine Regulations 175 

Wilmington Produce Exchange 179 

Western Union Telegraph Company 181 

Wilmington Telephone Exchange 184 

Wilmington PostofRce Statistics 185 

Lumber 187 

Steam Saw Mills ,196 

Peanuts 199 

Rice 202 

Provisions 210 

Fisheries 211 

The Dry Goods Business 215 

Fertilizers 218 

Turpentine Products 220 

Adulteration of Spirits Turpentine 227 

Crude Turpentine . . . = 238 

Spirits Turi)entine ". 239 

Rosin 241 

Tar 243 

Cotton 245 

Exi)orts — Domestic and Foreign 247 

Total Exports 248 

Destination of Exports 249 

Appendix i 251 



To the Members of the Produce Exchange : 

Instead of the usual condensed annual report upon the 
immediate affairs of the Exchange, I have the honor of 
presenting a pamphlet compiled and published at my own 
expense, containing information and statistics with refer- 
ence to our city and port, which I trust may be found 
interesting and acceptable to you, and also serve the pur- 
pose of bringing our business people into more intimate 
and profitable relations with the outside world. 

This work has no literary pretensions ; it is simply a 
record of facts, prepared, within the past six weeks, 
during brief intervals of routine business duty, and 
at some physical disadvantage. In it there is much, 
however, which may interest the general reader ; esi^e- 
cially with reference to the past of Wilmington, so 
little of which is known to the present generation 
of our citizens. The business statistics have been compiled 
with great care, especially for this report, and have never 
before been published in the same form. I have, as far as 
was practicable, sought the information Jn person, and 
from official, or otherwise reliable sources ; and in other 
instances through responsible agents, delegated for that 
purpose, so that the report might be accepted as good 
authority, accurate in detail, and reliable as to facts. 

Although the past year has not been a prosperous one 
for the business of the South, generally, it is gratifying to 
note many evidences here, of substantial improvement. 

Compare the number of industries of AVilmington with 
those of other Southern towns, as well as the yearly volume 



PREFACE. 

of general trade, and where will you find, in proportion 
to its population, a busier or more thriving community ? 
There is, however, much room for improvement. 

I have referred, in deference to the Chamber of Commerce, 
to the River and Harbor work, which is of such vital 
moment to our trade and commerce. The indications are, 
that unless a vigorous effort is made for an additional 
appropriation by the next Congress, this undertaking, 
already* so nearly accomplished, will suffer serious preju- 
dice by delay. Let us remember that a most important 
and indispensable element of local success, is that of hearty, 
honest co-operation. In united action we have strength 
and confidence ; and in striving for the general good of 
Wilmington we also promote our combined interests and 
individual welfare. This I believe to be the means of 
success in all prosperous centres of trade. 

In relinquishing the highest honor in your gift, I remem- 
ber with gratefulness many courtesies on your part which 
have characterized my term of office ; and it will probably 
be the proudest reflection of my business life that so many 
of our older merchants, whom as boy and man I honored 
and respected, have thus distinguished me with their 
esteem and confidence. It is gratifying to note that during 
the past year, among more than a hundred merchants con- 
nected with this Exchange, there has been no removal by 
death, and that the character and integrity of every house 

continues unimpaired. 

James Sprunt, 



Wilmington, North Carolina, 



SETTLEMENT. 

The Caps Pear River, upoji which Wiliiiingtoii is situr 
ated, was known in the early history of our State as the 
river Clarendon. 

The first settlement on its banks was mide in the year 
1659 or '60, and abandoned in 1663, — but at what particu- 
lar point it was made is not well established. In 1665; Sir 
John Yeamans, w^ith several hundred colonists from Bar- 
badoes, made the second settlement at a point about two 
miles below the present city of AVilminojton, now known as 
Old Town, or Town Creek, and in honor of the reigning 
King of England at the time, it was named Charlestown. 

A few years thereafter, Sir John and most of the colo- 
nists from Barbadoes, removed first to Port Royal, and 
cubsequently to the neck of land between the Ashley and 
Cooper rivers, and founded the present city of Charleston, 
S. C. 

Whether any of the colony under Yeamans remained on 
the Clarendon is not certainly known, but it is asserted by 
some of our historians that such is the fact, and that the 
old town of Brunswick, about six miles below the site of 
Charlestown, owes its origin to such of these colonists as 
did not accompany Yeamans to Charleston. 

Our earliest reliable knowledge of the town of Brunswick 
does not go further back than 1720, when it contained but 
few inhabitants, and it so continued for some years. 



() \VlLMIX(iTON, NOllTH CAUOLINA. 

About tlu3year 1725, (iiiite a colony of educated gentle- 
men, who had become disgusted vvitli the Blue Laws of 
Massachusetts, settled at that place ; and it soon became a 
thriving town of commercial importance, and the })i'incipal 
port from which the products of the Southern part of the 
province were exported. It being found however, tliat the 
roadstead or harbor of the town of Brunswick was much 
exposed and very unsafe, the line of the river was explored 
for a more suitable harbor, or place for the delivery and 
deposit of the articles then constituting the i)riiiclpal ex- 
ports from this part of the province ; and the present site 
of the city of Wilmington was found to be the nearest 
point to the town of Brunswick suitable for the purposes 
required; and here, about the year 1730, wharves and 
buildings were first erected. 

A plan of the village or town was soon made, with regu- 
larly delined streets and lots, and called New Liverpool, 
which name was retained until about 1732, when, as ap- 
pears by the oldest conveyances of the lots, the name was 
changed to Newton. 

There are deeds still in existence for the same lots or par- 
cels of lands situated in the town formerly known as New 
Liverpool, afterw^ards called Newton, now knowni as Wil- 
mington. 

The lands next north and .south of the tract on which 
New Liverpool or Newton was located, had been granted 
for some years prior to 1733, in whicli year John Watson, 
or Whatson, obtained a grant for G40 acres of land on the 
east side of th(^ north-east branch of the Cape Fear river. 
Among other recitals in said grant it is stated that the vil- 
lage of Newton is situated on the tract described and 
granted. 

The original settlers of New Liverpool or Newton were 
doubtless the factors or agents of the principal merchants 
of the town of Brunswick, which for many years thereafter, 
and up to the war of the Kevolution, continued to h^ 'port 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 7 

town^ where the officials of the colonial government re- 
sided, although i)rior to the Revolution the then town of 
Wilmington was the more populous of the two. 

In 1739, through the influence of Gabriel Johnston, 
Colonial Governor, the name of Newton was changed to 
that of Wilmington, in compliment to, or in honor of, 
Spence Compton, Baron Wilmington, an influential friend 
ot the Governor ; and in 1760, by a royal grant from George 
the S'^cond, Arthur Dobbs being Governor, Wilmington 
was elected a Borough, with the right of sending a member 
to the Assembly ; and by a second grant from the Crown 
in 1763, George the Third then being King, additional 
rights were given to the Borough, its corporate name being 
"The Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen of the Borough of 
Wilmington." 

In 1766 the corporate name was changed to that of the 
"Commissioners of the Town of Wilmington," and that 
name was continued for one hundred years, the present 
corporate name, "The City of Wilmington," being that by 
which the inhabitants of Wilmington were incorporated as 
a city in the year 1866. 

According to the recitals in the oldest deeds for lands on 
Eagles' Island, and in its vicinity on either side, the north- 
eastern and north-western branches of the Cape Fear river 
commence at the southern point of that Island. What is 
now called Brunswick river on the west side of the Island 
being the north-west branch, and Wilmington on the north- 
east branch, and not on the main stream of the Cape Fear. 
That portion of the river which runs from the north-east 
branch by Point Peter, or Negro-head Point, as it is called, 
to the north-west branch at the head of Eagles' Island, is 
called in the old deeds and statutes of the State "the 
thoroughfare," and sometimes the "cut through" from 
one branch to the other ; and the land granted to John 
Watson, on which Wilmington is situated, is described as 
lying opposite to the mouth of this "thoroughfare." 



8 AVILMINGT0:Pf, NORTH CAEOLtlSrA. 

The town of AVilmington rapidly increased in popula- 
tion, wliile the old town of Brunswick sank into decay, and 
was hnallj^ abandoned, and not a vestige of it now remains, 
save the crumbling walls of old St. Philip's Church, which 
marks the sj)ot where once the hum of busy life was heard 
more than a century and a half ago. 

Wilmington is in latitude 34° 12^, and in longitude 

The city limits extend from north to south 2| miles, and 
from east to w^est 1^ miles, comprising a total area of about 
2,400 acres. The general contour of the town is that of an 
elevated sand-ridge, running parallel wath the river, inter- 
sected with dunes and rivulets emptying into the river and 
adjacent streams. 

The Cape Fear river flows past the western front of the 
city, and its branches and tributaries almost encompass it. 

SANITARY. 

Artificial drainage has in recent years carried the storm 
water from the city into the tributary streams of the Cape 
Fear, and if maintained in proper condition, is well 
designed to effectually drain a lai'ge area which was for- 
merly the most unhealthj^ quarter of the settlement. As 
a result, malarial fever has greatly decreased in the last 
ten years, and it may be truly said that although stigma- 
tized fort}^ 3^ears ago as the sailor's grave, and shunned 
by the people of the up country as an unsafe place 
in which to tarry all night, during the summer and 
autumn, it has become exceptionally healthy. As an 
evidence of this, the death rate for several years past 
has been much smaller than in the surrounding country ;' 
and compares f^ivorably with the most favored towns of its 

NoTF. .'—It is supposed that the settlers at Old Town left on account of the sterility 
of the land, and for the further reason that Sir John Veamans was appointed 
Governor of South Carolina at that time, and his administration here had been so 
conservative they preferred to follow his fortunes. 



WILMINGTON, NOllTII CAROLINA. 9 

size on tlie Atlantic coast,— tlie annual death rate being 
about seventeen to the thousand. 

Drainage has not and cannot, it is true, alter the mala- 
rial influence upon crews of vessels sleeping on the river in 
the months of July, August, September and October. This 
standing menace to the prosperity of our shipping, as evi- 
denced by the scarcity of tonnage during these months, has 
been seriously considered for many .years, and a remedy 
actually devised. The difficulty has been to impress the 
lesson of prevention learned at such a cost, upon the inter- 
ested parties. The State Board of Health has done much 
towards inculcating important advice upon the subject as 
will be seen by the following extract from a report of Dr. 
T. F. Wood, Secretary of the N. C. Board of Health, to 
the Medical Society of North Carolina, 1882. 

"For many years it has been known, as well by the peo- 
l^le as by the doctors, that the fevers occurring among the 
vessels in our tide-water streams were preventable, in a 
marked degree. Observations extending over a space of 
time marked by four or five generations, demonstrated that 
the cause of sickness among sailors was due very largely to 
sleeping on board vessels in the Cape Fear River par- 
ticularly. This fact was so firmly established in the opin- 
ion of merchants in Wilmington, that $20,000 was sub- 
scribed to build a home for seamen in which they might 
find a safe retreat from the effluvia of the river, and what 
it not exactly pertinent to the present subject, to escape 
also the venereal effluvia of low sailor lodgings. 

In this building ample provision was made for more sail- 
ors than ever visit the port of Wilmington at one time, 
and by the Christian benevolence of Capt. Gilbert Potter, 
one of the oldest citizens of that city, who had himself been 
a sea-captain, a house of worship, supplied by the yearly 
ministrations of a preacher, was provided, to throw around 
these ''toilers of the sea," a beneficent influence. 



10 . WILMINGTOIS", NOIITII CAROLINA. 

The Board of Health, therefore, issued a pamphlet 
entitled "A Guide to Shipmasters Visiting the CajDe Fear 
River," a copy of which is herewith transmitted." 

Adcicc io Slii pinasters for the Precention of River Fever 
— The Fever Thermometer —Us Uses. 

The use of the thermometer to indicate the existence of 
fever is now^ established beyond doubt. It has been shown 
by thousands of observations that the heat of the body in 
any part of the world — in the tropics or the arctic circle - 
varies very little from 93.4° Fahr., in a grown person, in 
health. Upon this settled observation is based an esti- 
mate of the amount of fever in any given case. 

T.ie fever thermometer ditTers from the ordinary instru- 
ment in being selt-registering. In the figure a thermome- 
ter is shown with the index just below 95°. This index is 
a slender line of mercury separated from that in the bulb 
b}^ a sliglit space, and in a good thermometer the index 
does not fall back and unite with the mercury in the 
bulb. 



To Read the TiiEnMOMETEK. — The instrument must be 
examined and the index must be below the arrow seen at 
98.4°. If it i3 above it can be shaken down, either'by hold- 
ing it firmly between the finger and thumb and shaking 
forcibly as in flirting the ink out of a pen ; or, by taking 
tlie instrument at its upper tip, the end opposite the bulb, 
elevating the hand as high as the head, and, by a smart 
impulse downwards, tluis shake the index below the ar- 
row. 

The instrument is put under the tongue, or between the 
teeth and tlie cheek, the lips closed upon it. and it is al- 
lowed to r.Muaiu at lenst three minutes by tlie Avatch. 



WILMIN({TON, NOIITJI CAllOLINA. 11 

On removing the instrument, an examination of tlie in- 
dex will show the temperature, which is indicated at the 
upper tip of the index, that is the end of the index the 
farthest from the bulb. 

What a Rise int Temperature Means. — For the pur- 
poses of the instruction intended to be conveyed, it is safe 
to assume that every degree of heat beyond the arrow is a 
degree of fever. 

The following table will sliow the relation between the 
pulse and the temperature of the body : 

All increase of temperature of One Decjkee above 
98° Fahrenheit, corresponds with an increase of Ten beats 
of the iDulse per minute. {Aitken.) 

Temperature 98°— Pulse 60. 



99°— 


1 1 


70. 


ibo°— 


• i> 


80. 


101°— 


a 


90. 


102°— 


(( 


100. 


108°— 


( I 


110. 


104°— 


i I 


120. 


105°— 


1 1 


130. 


106°— 


( . 


140. 



The rule above is subject to some variation, but is a fair- 
ly good guide. 

It is well known that 101° before 11 A. M. indicates an 
approaching fever, and that the same after 5 o'clock a de- 
clining fever; and so on with every degree above it. 103.5° is 
about the average of the malarial fever of the rivers. Many 
severe cases reach 104.5° and 105. 5^-, Even 106° is not sure- 
ly fatal, but beyond this, in the most favorable condi- 
tions, the danger is very great. 108° to 110° is most surely 
fatal. 

With these introductory remarks we will call the atten- 
tion of shipmasters to certain precautions, which long ex- 
perience in this latitude has shown necessary to be ob- 
served. 



.12 WILMINGTOjS^, NOKTII CAROLINA. 

The fever occiuTing amongst the seamen who visit this 
and other Southern rivers is malarial. It is due to the 
ex]oosure of sleeping on board vessels, and keeping late 
hours at night. 

The Natuke and Coukse of River Malarial Fever. 
— It commences sometimes with a chill. The chill is either 
a shaking ague, or sometimes the only symptoms are cold- 
ness of the fingers, blue nails, cold nose, and eais and toes. 
Both forms may be an essential part of similar fevers. A 
chill may last from half an hour to two or three hours, and 
is always followed by fever. Chill is only a cold stage of 
fever, and the thermometer will most always show from 
100° to 102" even when the chill is highest. The fever 
comes on, the coldness of the skin gradually goes off, and 
the heat of fever follows, the temperature rising gradually 
to 103.5 to 105^ 

For instance, if the chill comes on before 11 o'clock A. 
M., as it often does, the fever will reach its height usually 
by 5 o'clock P. M., and then gradually decline, either by 
copious sweating or an abundant discharge of urine. If 
the fever goes entirely off it is intermittent. If it merely 
declines it is remittent. In either case a person seized with 
fever may look for a return on the succeeding day, or the 
day after. These are forms of the same fever and have all 
been named. Thus we have them coming on daily, twice 
daily, every other day, every third day, and so on ; "but 
the fevers are essentially the same, being practically cured 
by the same treatment. 

The way to avoid River Fever. — Live temperately, 
and do not sleep in the river on board vessel during the 
months of August, September and October. The air of the 
town is perfectly harmless to most x>ersons, and especially 
those who go to bed early, and are not intemperate. 

Sleeping on board during the months named does not 
ahvays cause sickness, but it does nearly always. Some- 
times fever does not develop until a vessel gets to sea, and 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 18 

then ail hands may be taken dovvn at the same time. Such 
cases are known. 

Prophylactic. — The daily use of quinine or the x^repa- 
rations of Peruvian bark, loill j)TeDe]itfevier. It is a good 
l)ractice to give to crews of vessels a daily morning dose 
equal to five grains of quinine. Some of the cheaper pre- 
parations of bark answer this purpose very well. None of 
them are equal to quinquinia, a preparation tested now 
during several seasons, and found to be remarkably effi- 
cient. It contains 15 per cent, of quinia and 45 percent, of 
other valuable alkaloids ot i:>eruvian bark, which really 
gives it an advantage over the sulphate of quinine usually 
sold. It is recommended with great confidence. 

What to do after the ve^jsel gets to sea. — In every 
case of complaining on the part of a seaman, the Cai3tain 
or an intelligent officer should take the man's temperature. 
If it is more than 98.4° he will be wise to conclude that 
there is a fever approaching. 10(f or 101° is absolute evi- 
dence, apart from any other condition of the man, that he 
has fever, and it is tolerably certain that if it is not checked 
he will have more the next day. 

What to do if the temperature rises. — No amount 
of fever should prevent the patient from taking quinine, 
or some other preparation of bark in the proper doses. It 
is always best to commence quinine early in the morning 
because the fever increases towards noon, and with the in- 
crease of fever comes on many times such a sick stomach 
that the ijatient cannot retain the much needed medicine. 
But if the stomach does not reject it he ought to have his 
medicine in proper quantities, notwithstanding the fever 
for every day of its continuance unaffected by medicine, 
lessens the chance of recovery. 

What medicine to give. - If the fever is detected ear- 
1}^, medicine should be given at once. It is necessary usually 
to give tioenty grains of quinine every twenty-four hours. 
J/or<3 is needed sometimes, but it is not often that a less 



14 WILMINGTON, NOIiTII CAIIULINA. 

quantity will succeed. It is best to direct''- live i^rains of 
quinine in pills evfery two hours, commencing as early as 
four o'clock in the morning, until twenty grains are given. 
Should pain in the head and hot sldn, and unpleasant 
"singing" or ''roaring" in the ears, trouble the patient, 
bromide of 2^oiash'^ should he given in ten grain doses ^ 
dissolved in water, every two or three hours Usually a 
verj^ hot and dry slvin yields to the action of the i-eraedies 
above. Should they iixW.JliLid exircct of Jaborandi should 
be given, fifteen drops qx^aj hour until copious sweating 
comes on. 

Co?z.^^,'jfc>«//o>'i is somecimes an accompaniment of this fe- 
ver, and should be relieved by Calomel and Soda at nighty 
or Epsom, Salts and table salt i;t the morning. 

Relaiises are not uncommon, and although the thermom- 
eter may not indicate fever after a few days of treatment, 
(and it is urged that the thermometer should be carefully 
applied morning and evening,) it is never safe to withdraw 
the quinine the day following the one on which the patient 
misses his fever. At least ten grains should be continued 
daily for three or four days in succession. 

KKCAPITULATION. 

[. The thermometer is a sure guide in the eaily detection 
of Kiver Fever. 

2. Whenever a man shows any indisposition after a stay 
on the river during the months of August, September and 
October, apply the fever thermometer, and if he has 100° or 
over, you may look out for more fever the next day-. 
■ 3. Quinine should be given in live grain doses until 
twenty grains are given before noon. No time should be 
lost. 

4. Relapses canlie prevented h\ continuing the medicine 
four days in succession after the last indications of fever. 



*See formulas on tlio last pago. 



WILMINGTON, NOIITII CAROLINA. 15 

FoiiMULA 1. — Quinine Pillsi, 
Take of 

Quinine, two scruples or forty grains, 
Tartaric Acid, ten grains, 
Griycerine, twenty to twenty-live drops. 
Mix well, and make twelve pills. Roll in magnesia be- 
fore putting in a box. 
One pill every hour until six are taken a dny. 

2. — Quinine Solution, 
Take of 

Quinine, forty grains, 
Tartaric Acid, thirty grains. 
Water, two ounces or four tablespoonsfuL 
Mix and make a solution. 

A teaspoonful every hour until six doses are g ven each 
day. 

3.— Bromide Solution. 
Take of 

Bromide of Potassium, one ounce. 
Sugar, two tablespoonsfuL 
Dissolve the bromide in the water and add the sngar 
until all is dissolved. 

The dose for headache, and for the excitement caused by 
quinine is a teaspoonful every two hours. 

A little lemon juice or hydrobromic acid makes the solu- 
tion pleasanter to take. 

4.^QuiNQUiNiA Solution. 

Prophylactic. 
Take of 

Quinquinia, one ounce, 

Tartaric Acid, half an ounce, 

Water, three pints. 
Mix and make a solution. 
Dose, a tablespoonful every morning. 



.16 WlL:MINGTOy, NORTH CAUOLIISrA. 

r).--QriNQUlNIA SOLUTIOX FOIl FeVER. 

Make as in the solution of quinine and in the same qnan- 
tities. 

G. — QuixQriNiA Pills. 

Make the sam(^ as qninine pills and in the same quanti- 
ties and doses. 

7. — Calomel and Soda. 

Purgative. 

Take of 

Calomel, six grains, 

Bicarbonate Soda, twenty grains. 
Make a powder and mix in a spoon with syinp. 

8— Epsom Salts and Table Salt. 

Purgative. 
Take of 

Epsom Salts, one-half to one onnce. 
Table Salt, one teaspoonful. 
Mix and make a solution in a cup of water. To be taken 
before Ibreakfast. . 

The following remarks on the subject of remittent fVver, 
kindly furnished me by the authoi', Dr. Fairfax Irwin, 
Passed Assistant Surgeon in Charge of our Marine Hos- 
pital, will be interesting in this connection. It will be 
observed that he agrees substantially with the other 
anthority quoted. 

"Remittent fever, or as it is popularly called on the Cape 
Fear, 'ri^er fever,' is so common, and aside from its dan- 
gerous character, so expensive to ship-masters and owners 
that a few remarks on its character and treatment will not 
s<?em out of place, especially at this its chosen season. This 
article is based on the results obtained from the treatment 
of ninety cases of remittent fever during the past eighteen 
months, all of wjiich have recovered with an average dura- 
tion of tivatnipr.t of about nine days pei- man. 



\vrL:MiN(;TON, noiitii catjolina. 17 

These cases were all treated in the Marine Hospilal in 
Wilmington, N. C, and were, as a result, in a very favora- 
ble situation for observation. To the treatment, followed 
with little variation in all cases, the favorable result is at- 
tributed. That too much is not claimed will be readily al- 
lowed by any wiio are acquainted with the character of the 
malarial fever in this region, and especially when it is re- 
membered that this disease is clinically the same as the 
billions fever of thiity or forty )-ears ago, which was itself 
so fatal. -' 

The river fever is seen but in isolated cases before August 
and from that time increases in virulence until the kindly 
hand of frost is bxid npon it. 

The most severe cases are seen among the sailors, espe- 
cially those unacclimated, and is directly traceable to ex- 
posure at night to the poisonous exhalations from the rice 
fields along the river. Tlie sailors sleeping upon the ves- 
sel-decks on warm nights are soon attacked, while the 
captains sleeping ashore usually escape entirely. Seamen 
from foreign vessels fall an easy prey, and give the largest 
percentage of malignant cases. 

It is nqt to be forgotten, however, that sailors in addition 
to exjDOSure are usually filthy in their habits, reckless and 
dissipated to a degree. Before passing to a short sketch of 
the natural history of this fever it may be well to refer to a 
common idea held by seafaring men, that salt water 
'brings out the fever,' a vessel after remaining for ten days 
or two weeks in the Cape Fear River usually drops down 
to Smithville at its mouth, to complete loading, and here 
frequentl}^ after having been healthy all of the time spent 
above, the crew succumb almost suddenly to fever, hence 
the notion of salt water 'driving it out.' I believe this is 
nothing more than a coincidence, the outbreak of the dis- 
ease after its regular period of incubation. Sailors have 
died at sea after leaving Wilmington, of the fever, though 
healthy on departure and with such malignant sym]> 



18 WILJEINGTON, NOKTH CAKOLINA. 

toms as to cause masters to report them as cases of yellow 
fever. 

Remittent I'ever as I have seen it here, after an incuba- 
tion of from ten days to two weeks breaks out quite sud- 
denly and with alarming symptoms from the first. Per- 
liaps iu some cases a certain lassicude and weakness for a 
few days may precede, but as a rale the onset is sudden. 

Contrary to the statement in most works on the subject, 
there is no initial chill ; this did not occur in any of the 
ninety cases treated. Many men were brought into the 
hospital insensible, having been taken sick duilng the 
day. 

The prominent symptoms were a dull, stolid countenance; 
wear}^, slouching gait ; acnte lancinating pains in the head 
and back, dull pains in the limbs, tenderness on pressure 
over the region of the stomach with great irritability of 
that organ ; a'^characteristic tongue, large, llabb}^, showing- 
indentations of the teeth, and thickly coated with bluish 
white fur, rarely dry except in protracted cases, and often 
so large as apparently to till the mouth. The coating was 
often absent, but the bluish-white tint was invariablj^ 
jjresent. 

The full Jupid pulse, throbbing carotids, and moist sur- 
face showed the excited circulation. The sweats were in 
most cases as copious and as debilitating as in phthisis. 
The temperatui-e ranged from 100° to 105° (38' to 40.4°C.) 
or. the first evening, the average being 104° (40° C.) 

There was a marked tendency to congestion of various 
organs, especially tlie lungs, but an implication of the liver 
to any appreciable extent was not observed ; the yellow 
hue of the skin so often spoken of in books was not seen. 
Albumen was not discovered iu the urine in any case. De- 
lirium was rarely present, severe cases were moie apt to 
become comatose. The irritation of the stomach was fre- 
quently most severe and difficult to manage, everytliirg 
being rejected and passed on to tlie vomiting of pure bile. 
Thei-e was no eruption. 



WI].:MINGT()N, NOKTJl CAUOLINA. 19 

There is little clanger of a mistake in diagnosis : the sea- 
son of the year, the sudden seizure, the steel-colored tongue, 
acute pains in the head and back, and distinctly remittent 
range of temperature are characteristic. 

There was rarely more than one exacerbation, owing, it is 
believed, to the large doses of quinia used. When a second 
exacerbation followed, it was always found to be due to an 
insufficient use of quinia. In the whole number of cases 
treated there was little variation of symptoms, but a few 
interesting exceptions may be mentioned. 

Epistaxis was somewhat common and one case required 
plugging of the nares to prevent exhaustion from loss of 
blood. Hemorrhages from the bowels was present in a 
case which lasted two weeks ; there were no other symp- 
toms of typhoid fever, however. One case so strongly sim- 
ulated cerebro-spinal fever as to leave the diagnosis in doubt 
for a few days ; there was well marked opisthotonos, but 
recovery followed in due course. 

A case in private practice seen in consultation with Dr. 
Geo. Ct. Thomas, of Wilmington, had the Cheyne-Stokes' 
breathing perfectly, and presented the appearance of ap- 
proaching dissolution. Large doses of quinia were being 
given but the disease had advanced so far before advice 
was asked for that it seemed as if the nervous system 
would be overwhelmed by the poison before the remedy 
had time to act. A blister was applied to the back of the 
neck and atropia sulphate ((),001{) gramme) given every 
three hours, Avith good effect, and recovery followed. 
Atro^Dia was given to counteract the slow sjjasmodic breath- 
ing ; the besoin de respirer being almost absent, as in 
opium poisoning. 

The treatment used in the ninety cases to which this paper 
chiefly refers was based on the principle that remittent 
fever is caused by a poison now known as malaria, which 
ispiesentin almost overwhelming degree, and to which 
quinia is a direct antidote if used in large doses. 



20 WILMINGTOX, NORTH CAROLINA, 

Cases showing the usual eveninnj temperature of 40° C, 
and upward were given from 30 to 45 grains (2 to H 
grammes) of quinia sulphate, usually in solution witli 
dilute sulphuric acid, and largely diluted with ice water. 
As the stomach in many cases was fjo irritable as to reject 
this really nauseous dos>:\ the quinia was then given in 
pills freshly made with glycerine ; when these were reject- 
ed, as was often the case, the drug was administered hypo- 
dermicall}^, the dose in this case being from 10 to 15 grains 
(0.666 to 1 gramme). The solution for hypodermic use was 
made with citric acid, and although many times used, no 
abcess ensued in any case. 

This large dose almost invariably reduced the tempera- 
ture from one to three degrees by morning, the quinia was 
then given in doses of 5 grains (0.333 gramme) thrice daily, 
and the lai-ge dose again repeated at night if the tempera- 
ture rose. This method, with a few exceptions, cut short 
the fever in from three to five days, as the average dura- 
tion of nine days for the whole number of cases will show. 
Some, especially where there was an existing organic dis- 
ease, were more rebellious, and required large quantities 
of quinia before convalescence was established. 

As much as 465 grains (30 grammes) of quinia were given 
in eight daj^s in two different cases, and no ill effects were 
observed ; in fact in no case did quinia cause any disturb- 
ance beyond deafness which soon passed away under ces- 
sation of the drug and small doses ot hydrobromic acid. 
Dimness of vision was never complained of. 

If the bowels were inactive, an enema was given at once, 
but no preparatory treatment was ever used. As the skin 
and kidneys were active, opium or diaphoretics were not 
called for. To moderate the heart's action fluid extract of 
aconite-root in one drop doses every four hours was given 
in most all cases ; this, with ice compresses to the head, 
was about all the treatment. 



WILMINGTON, NOUTtt CAlJOLlNA. 21 

The irritable stomacli was best controlled by creasote 
or vin. ipecac. (5 minims) 0.333 cc. every two or three 
hours. 

Rigid milk diet was given and no stimulants used. It is 
desired to insist upon the Heedlessness of the almost uni- 
versal custom of preparing the system for the action of 
quinia, much valuable time is lost in an unnecessary pro- 
cedure, and it is thought that opium is positively contrain- 
dicated by the symj)toms. 

In conclusion, the fact should not be lost sight of that 
remittent fever is eminently a disease to be prevented. 
While vessels are in the river the crews should be required 
to sleep ashore. Captains should be furnished with clini- 
cal thermometers, with instructions for their use, and on 
the first indication of fever, a dose of at least 30 grains 
(2 grammes) of quinia should be given. 

The total number of cases observed during eighteen 
months was ninety, total number of days treatment four 
hundred and forty, average per i^atient nine and one-third 
days." 

CITY GOVERNMENT, 

The present government of the City is composed of the 
Board of Aldermen and Board of Audit and Finance. 

The Board of Aldermen is composed of the following 
named gentlemen : Hon. E. D. Hall, Mayor, and Messrs. 
G. J. Boney, Samuel Bear, John L. Dudley, S. H. Fish- 
blate, William L. DeRosset, WilHam H. Chadbourn, Isham 
Sweat, Valentine Howe and John J. Gnyer. 

The Board of Audit and Finance is a branch of the city 
government created by an act of the General Assembly, 
28th February, 1877, and is at i^resent comj^osed of the 
following named gentlemen : Mr. R. J. Jones, Chairman, 
and Messrs. AVilliam Calder, O. A. Wiggins, W. R. Kenan 
and John S. McEachern. 



32 WILMINGTON, NOKTH CAROLINA. 

Since Wilmington was incorporated as a city by the 
General Assembly, 1st February, 1860, the following named 
have filled the office of Mayor : 

Mr. A. H. VanBokkelen, elected in March, 1866. 

Mr. John Dawson, elected in January, 1867, 

Mr. Jos. H. Neff, appointed by the Provisional Governor 
of the State in July, 1868, and elected in January, 1809. ^ 

Mr. S. N. Martin, elected in January, 1870. 

Mr. James Wilson, elected in May, 1872. 

Mr. W. P. Canaday, elected in May, 1873. 

Mr. John Dawson, elected in June, 1877, and resigned 
in Februar}^, 1878. 

Mr. S. H. Fishblate, elected in February, 1878. 

Mr. \Y- L. Smith, elected in March, 1881. 

Mr. E. D. Hall, elected in March, 1883. 

The following comprises a list of the present officers of 
the city, with their pay : 

Hon. E. D. Hall, Mayor ; salary $1,200 per annum. 

Mr. R. J. Jones, Chairman of the Board of Audit and 
Finance, and Commissioner of the Sinking Fund, for 
which he receives a yearly salary of $400, and gives a bond 
for $5,000. 

Mr. Henry Savage, Clerk and Treasurer, salary $000 per 
year, and also Tax Collector; estimated salary j^l,500 per 
annum, out of which he has all clerk hire to i^ay ; he gives 
a bond of $20,000. 

Mr. John Cowan, Clerk of the Board of Audit and 
Finance ; salary $600, and Clerk of the Police Department, 
with a salary of $600 a year. 

Mr. H. C. Brock, Chief of Police ; salary $1,200. 

Dr. F. W. Potter, Superintendent of Health ; salary 
$600. 

Mr. Charles D. Myers, Chief of Fire Dei^artment ; salary 
$300. 

Mr. L. M. Williams, Clerk of Market ; salary $400. 

A. W. Wiggs, Cax^tain of Police; pay $55.00 permonth. 

Three Sergeants of Police, at $1.60 per day each. 

Twenty-live Privates of Police, at $1.50 per day each. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 23 

Three Health officers at $35.00 per month each. 
Two Janitors, at |40.00 i^er month each. 
One Superintendent of Street Force, at $40.00 per month. 
The other employees of the city vary in numbers and are 
paid, say for street-cleaners, &c., 83^ cents per day. 

CITY FINANCES. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, April 1st, 1882, the 
net bonded debt of the city, after deducting the amount of 
bonds held by the Commissioners of the linking Fund, 
was ^528,800, all in Coupon Bonds, interest payable Janu- 
ary and July each year. 

Of the above amount of bonds outstanding, there was of 
those issued for subscription to the Wilmington, Charlotte 
and Rutherford Railroad stock, past due and never present- 
ed for payment, though repeatedly advertised for,— $8,500. 

On July 1, 1882, $60,400 of the bonds matured, and the 
City Government has just accomplished the payment of 
them by the sale of six per cent, bonds, authorized by 
the last General Assembly, so that the bonded debt of the 
City now stands, say : 

$263,900, in eight per cent. Coupon Bonds, and $288,300, 
in six per cent. Coupon Bonds, making $552,200,— total 
bonded debt of the City, of which $44,400 is now held by 
the Commissioner of the Sinking Fund as per his last an- 
nual statement herewith, which would leave the net debt 
$507,800, subject to a further deduction of the amount to 
go to the Sinking Fund from the unexpended balances of 
the appropriations of the years ending March 31, 1881 and 
March 31, 1882. 

The Commissioner of the Sinking Fund receives a semi- 
annual income of $1,379 from the bonds he now holds, this 
amount being re-invested in City bonds as fast as the same 
is paid, thereby increasing the fund and its income semi- 
annuallv. 



24 wil:mington, noetii caeolina. 

There is no floating debt, all bills against the City being 
paid on presentation. 

The Cit}^ has recently purchased the two pieces of prop- 
erty known as the New Market Houses, for which it iias 
issued its notes for $30,000— payable twenty years after 
January 1st, 1883, with interest at the rate of six per cent, 
per annum. Many jDersons are of the opinion that the pro- 
perty fully represents the amount of the notes, and if judi- 
ciously managed, the income from the same will j)ay the 
interest and gradually sink the principal by its maturity. 

The taxable value of the Real and Personal property as 
per the tax book of 1882 is $5,017,983, and the rate one 
and three-fourths per cent. 

The value of the non-taxable property within the City 
limits, such as Churches, Schools, Wilmington & Weldon 
Railroad, and Public Buildings, is estimated at $650,000, 
of which the City owns $105,000, The income for the year 
ending March 31st, 1882, from Real and Personal property 
tax. Merchants License and back taxes, was $111,450, which 
is a fair indication of what the income will be this year. 

The interest for July, 1882, and January, 1883, was $40,- 
782. It will be for the coming year $38,410. 

The appropriation for expenses for the year ending- 
March 31st, 1883, is $63,490. 

There are two items included in the expenses for this 
year which have never occurred before, — the Water Works 
$6,750, and the City Hospital 11,000, the two amounting to 
$7,750, which if deducted from the amount appropriated, 
$63,490, would leave $55,740 as the ordinary expenses of the 
City, by which to make a comparison with former years. 
It would, appear that this great reduction in the value of 
the Real Estate made by the Assessor, was more in the in- 
terest of the tax-payers than of the City, as all the sales 
of Real Estate made since the new assessment have been at 
an advance of about tliirty-three and one third per cent., 
making tlio n arkct value oL" the Real Estat(^ al)()nt 
|'4,00(),0()0. 



WILMINGTOiSr, NOHTII CAROLINA. 25 

111 1S77 the City bonds were selling at seventy cents or 
less on the dollar. 

Now the six per cents, are worth par, and the eight per 
cent, bonds cannot be bought for less than 107. In 1877 
the coupons were bought up at a discount ranging from 
ten to twenty per cent, and j^aid into the Tax Collector' s 
office for taxes at par. 

Now the coupons are regularly paid as they mature. 

All merchants' license taxes have been reduced since 
1877, on an average, thirty-five i^er cent. 

The current expenses for the year ending May 12th, 1877, 
were $79,359.57, and the same class of expenses for the 
present year, as stated above, will be 155,740.. 

I am indebted substantially for the foregoing particulars 
to our efficient and obliging Treasurer, Maj. Henry Savage, 
who, unlike many modern public officials, is always ready 
to furnish information with reference to his department, for 
reasonable purposes. 

I desire also to acknowledge official courtesies from 
Mayor Smith, Capt. Cowan, Capt. Brock, and Chief 
Engineer Robinson. 

AUDIT AND FINANCE. 

As the establishment of the Board of Audit and Finance 
in 1877 brought a most gratifying and substantial change 
for the better in our city finances, and as the administra- 
tion of this important branch of our municipal government 
has been characterized by a degree of efficiency and public 
spirit most iiraiseworthy to its members,— especially to the 
original Board, upon whom devolved in its organization a 
very difficult and responsible task,— I have thought it my 
duty, as well as a privilege, to append with a copy of the 
Act of Assembly creating the Board, a correspondence 
published last year upon the retirement of Mr. Norwood 
Giles, who served as the first Chairman of the Board ; and 
to whom, with his colleagues, Messrs. D. Gr. Worth, R. J. 
Jones, W. D. Mahn, and T. W. Player, we are indebted 



26 WILMINGTON, KOETII CAROLINA. 

in a groat measure for the present highly satisfactor}^ con- 
dition of our municipal credit. 

A7i Act to establish a Board of Audit and Finance for the 
City of Wilmington. 

Section 1. The General Assembly of North Carolina 
do enact^ That in the month of March, A. D. one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-seven, and biennially thereaf- 
ter, the Governor of this State shall appoint five discreet 
and jiroper parsons among the electors of the city of Wil- 
mington, one from each of the five wards of said city, who 
shall constitute and be styled "the Board of Audit and 
Finance of the city of Wilmington," and the persons so 
appointed shall continue in office for two years, and until 
their successors are duly appointed and qualified. No 
person holding an ofliice or appointment under the Board 
of Aldermen of said city, or under any law in reference to 
said city, or who may be a contractor for any work, 
materials, supplies or other things whatever for the use 
of said city, shall be eligible as a member of said Board, 
or qualified to act as one of its members. Any vacancy 
occurring among the members of said Board during 
their term of office, shall be filled by the remaining 
members. 

Sec. 2. Said Board shall, from their body, elect a chair- 
man, who, with the clerk hereinafter j)rovided for, shall 
sign and certify all orders of the Board ; and in case such 
chairman shall be absent at any meeting of the Board, a 
temporary chairman shall be chosen, who, during such 
meeting, shall exercise the powers of the regular chairman. 
The chairman of said Board shall have i^ower to administer 
oaths, and issue subpoenas for witnesses to appear before 
the Board, who shall be required to appear and testify, 
under like pains and penalties as if summoned to any 
Superior Court. Before entering on their duties, the 



WILMINGTON, NOKTJI CAIIOLINA. 27 

members of said Board sliall, before some jastiee of the 
peace, take and subscribe the oath of office, prescribed in 
section four of article six of the constitution, and cause the 
same to be filed in the office of the Clerk and Treasurer of 
said City. 

Sec. 3. The Board shall appoint a Clerk, prescribe his 
duties, and require him to give bond, payable to the City 
of Wilmington, in such sum as said Board may consider 
sufficient, secured by two or more good sureties, and con- 
ditioned for the faithful performance of the duties of his 
office. The said Clerk shall hold office at the pleasure of said 
Board, shall have power to administer oaths, and shall 
receive such compensation, not exceeding six hundred 
dollnYS per annum, as said Board may establish. 

Sec. 4. Said Board shall hold regular meetings twice 
every month, and oftener if necessary, in some room in 
the City Hall at such times as the Board may determine, 
and of which due notice shall be given by advertisements 
.to be posted at the Court House door, and ten other public 
places in the city. Said meetings shall be opened to the 
public, and the times of holding the regular semi-monthly 
meetings shall not be changed, unless ten days notice of 
such change shall be given as aforesaid. The Clerk shall, 
in proper books, keej) a minute record of the i)roceedings 
of said meetings, recording the names of the members pres-' 
ent, the character and amount of all claims and demands 
against the city, and the names of the claimants. All such 
claims and demands shall be made out in distinct items, 
verified by the affidavit of tlie claimant or his agent, 
stating that the claim is Just and due, that the articles 
were furnished or services rendered, as the case may be, 
and that no part of the same has been satisfied. Notwith- 
standing such affidavit, the said Board may require further 
proof as to the validity of any claim ; and any person who 
shall knoAvingly or wilfully offer or cause to be offered for 
audit by said Board, any false or fraudulent claim or 



28 WILMINGTON, NOllTII CAROLINA. 

demand against the City of Wilmington, shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor ; and any person who shall 
wilfully swear to any false statement before said Board, 
shall be guilty of perjury. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of said Board to audit and 
X)ass upon the validity of all claims and demands against 
the City of Wilmington, and no claim or demand against 
said city shall be i)aid by the treasurer of said cit}^, or by 
any other person, out of any funds belonging to said city, 
until the same has been duly audited and approved by 
said Board, and a warrant signed by the Chairman and 
Clerk, given for the payment of the same. All claims, 
demands and accounts presented to said Board to be 
audited, shall be treated and proceeded with in all re- 
spects as is provided in section twelve, chapter twenty- 
seven, of Battle's Revisal, in reference to claims or ac- 
counts against counties. Any member of said Board who 
shall knowingly vote to allow any fals(?, fraudulent or 
untrue claim or demand against said city, shall be deemed 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction, shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars, 
and by imprisonment for not less than one j^ear. 

Sec. G. No ordinance of the Board of Aldermen of said 
city, levying any tax whatever, shall be valid or of any 
effect unless an estimate and the rate of assessment of 
the taxes so to be levied, shall be first submitted to said 
Board of Audit and Finance, and approved, by at least 
three of its members. The estimates aforesaid shall specify 
the amount required during the next coming fiscal year to 
pay interest on the debt of said cit}^ and to provide a sink- 
ing fund for its ultimate payment, and the amount which 
will be required, as nearl}^ as can be ascertained, to meet 
the necessary exj)enditures for the several departments of 
the city government, and the amounts to "be expended 
under said estimates shall be apportioned by said Board of 
Audit and Finance, according to the specifications accom- 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAR<^LINA. 29 

panying the same, among the several departments of the 
city, of which apportionment a copy shall be delivered to 
the Clerk and Treasurer of said city. All warrants which 
may be drawn on account of any duly audited claim or 
demand, shall specify the particular fund from which the 
same is to be paid, and no such warrant shall be paid from 
any other fund, than the one designated therein ; and if 
any such warrant shall be paid, in violation of this pro- 
vision, or if any claim against said city shall be paid or be 
received on account of any indebtedness to said city, 
before a proper warrant for the same has been issued, the 
Treasurer of said city, or any other person paying the 
same out of any funds belonging to said city shall be liable 
for the amount so paid, and shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor. 

Sec. 7, The said Board of Audit and Finance shall, once 
in every three months, cause to be posted at the Court 
House, and ten other public places in said city, a state- 
ment of all claims and demands against said city, audited 
by said Board, giving the respective amounts claimed and 
allowed, the character of said claim and the name of the 
claimant. 

Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of said Board of Audit and 
Finance, and it shall have the exclusive power to fix the 
salaries or other compensation of all officers and employees 
of said city, and to pass upon and approve the official 
bonds of such officers ; and no contract, even for the 
necessary expenses of said city, nor any bond, note or 
other obligation in behalf of said city, shall be valid or of 
any effect, unless the same be ajjproved by said Board, and 
such approval be endorsed thereon. Any officer of said 
city who is required to give a bond for the faithful per- 
formance of his duties, who shall enter upon the discharge 
of the duties of his office, or in any way intermeddle there- 
with, before the official bond siiall be duly approved as 
aforesaid, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 



30 WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 

on conviction shall he lined not less than five hnndred 
dollars, and imprisoned not less than six months, and shall 
further forfeit his office. 

Sec. il Said Board shall, at such times during each year 
as may be deemed judicious, and at the end of each iiscal 
year, audit and cause to be settled the accounts of the City 
Treasurer, and of all other persons holding any funds 
belonging to said cit}^ ; and on all such settlements, all 
interest, benefit, advantage received or to be received, 
directly or indirectlj^, from the use, disposal or deposit of 
any funds belonging to said city, by any officer or agent 
of the city, shall be duly accounted for. Such officers or 
agents upon making any sucli settlements shall be required 
to make and file with said Board an affidavit, declaring as 
the fact may be, whether he has or has not received, or is 
not to receive directly or indirectly, any interest, benefit or 
advantage from the use, deposit, or any disposal of said 
funds, and shall also be examined orally on the mattei's 
referred to. In the event that any officer of said city, 
upon the investigation of his accounts as aforesaid, shall 
be found to be in default, said Board of Audit and Finance 
is hereby authorized and emx)Owered to declare his office 
vacant. 

Sec. 10. The Board of Aldermen of the said city shall, 
annually, at least one month before the time of the annual 
assessment of taxes by said Board, and at such other times 
as may be necessary, advertise for proposals for all labor 
and for all materials required by said city for the opening, 
guttering, grading and cleaning or paving, or otherwise 
improving the streets, alleys or sidewalks of said city ; 
for lighting and repairing the lami:)S of the city ; for all 
labor and materials for the rei:)air or construction of all 
buildings belonging to the city ; for all printing and 
advertising required by the city ; for all supplies of any 
kind required for the use of the city, or any department 
thereof ; and shall contract for the same with the lowest 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAKOLIN.A. 31 

biddej', who raay.be considered lit and competent ; but no 
sucli contract shall be binding on the city till api^roved by 
the said Board of Audit and Finance, by which all sucli 
contractors shall be required to enter into bonds secured to 
its satisfaction, for the faithful performance of their several 
contracts. 

Sec, 11. The Chairman of the Board of Audit and Finance 
shall be "the Commissioner of the Sinking Fund of the City 
of Wilmington," and shall liave all the powders and per- 
form all the duties incident to that office by any and all 
acts of the General Assembly authorizing or requiring the 
appointment of such an officer. He shall enter into bond, 
with two or more good and sufficient sureties, to be ap- 
i:)roved of by the Board of Aldermen of said city in such 
sum as said Board of Aldermen shall fix, and payable to 
the city of Wilmington, and conditioned for the faithful 
performance of all the duties incident to said office, or 
which may be hereafter imposed on such officers. The 
Chairman of said Board, as Commissioner of the Sinking 
Fund of the city of Wilmington, shall in the months of 
January and July of each year cause to be published, in 
one or more of the newspapers in said city, a statement 
showing the true condition of said Sinking Fund, giving the 
amount and character of the investments of the same, and 
the place of deposit of the securities belonging to it. 

Sec. 12. The Treasurer of the said city, upon a j^roper 
warrant to be drawn on him as is hereinbefore provided, 
shall pay over to the said Commissioner of the Sinking 
Fund the amounts which may from time to time be col- 
lected from taxes assessed and levied for the Sinking Fund 
of said city, and also all sums which may have been 
assessed and collected for any other department of the city 
government, and which may be remaining in his hands 
unexpended and unappropriated at the end of any fiscal 
year. The sums of money which may be paid as aforesaid 
to theCommissioner of the Sinking: Fund, shall be invested 



32 WILMINGTON, NOliTII CAROLINA. 

and managed as required by law ; and in making invest- 
ments of the same, and of all sums accruing from securi- 
ties in wliicli the same may be invested, pieferenco shall 
be given to such of the bonds of said city which will yield 
the largest income on the amount invested ; all of such 
bonds of the city of AYilmington which may be purchased 
for the purpose aforesaid and all the coupons thereto, 
shall be immediately and indelibly stamped with the words: 
"the Sinking Fund of the City of Wilmington;'' and the 
number, amount and date of issue of every such bond shall 
be recorded by said Commissioner in a proper book kept 
by said Board of Audit and Finance for that purpose ; and 
a duly certified copy of such record shall from time to time, 
as additional investments for said fund shall be made, be 
furnished b}^ said Commissioner to the Board of Aldermen 
of said city, who shall cause the same to be filed by the 
clerk and treasurer of said city, and recorded in a proper 
book in his office. All bonds as aforesaid, and all other 
securities purchased as investment of any fund belonging 
to said sinking fund, and all intei'est accruing thereon, 
shall be held exclusively for the use of and as part of said 
Sinking Fund, and shall not be disposed of or transferred, 
or in any way used for any other purpose whatever. The 
chairman of said Board of Andit and Finance, as compen- 
sation for his services as Commissioner of the Sinking Fund 
of the City of Wilmington, shall be entitled to a salary of 
four hundred dollars per annum ; and the Treasurer of 
said city, upon the proper warrant as aforesaid, signed by 
the Chairman and Clerk of said Board of Audit and 
Finance, shall pay the necessary expenses of said Board, 
the salary of their Clerk, and the salary as aforesaid of its 
Chairman. 

Sec. 13. The Treasurer of the city of Wilmington shall 
at the end of every month, cause to be posted at the Court 
House and at ten other public places in said city, a state 
nient dul}^ verified by his oath, in which shall be set forth 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 83 

the names of all persons to whom he has x^^ici any amount 
during that month, the amount so i)aid to each person, the 
particular fund from which such pajnnent has l'>een made, 
and the whole amount of money belonging to the city then 
remaining in his hands. 

Sec. 14. That all laws and parts of laws in conflict with 
the provisions of this act are hereby repealed, and this 
act shall be in force from and after the ratification of the 
same. 

Ratified the 28th day of February, A. D. 1877. 

City Finances — Meioort of the Commissioner of the Sink- 

ing Fund, and Accompanying Statement of 

the City Clerk and Treasurer. 

OFFICE BOARD OF AUDIT AND FINANCE, 

City of Wilmington, N. C, January 4th^ 1882. 

The Honorable, the Mayor and Aldermen, City of Wit- 
onlngton : 

Gentlemen: — As reqnired by law^ I beg to report present 
status of the Sinking Fund. 

securities held. 

Of Bonds maturing February 1st, 1892, 8 2,500 00 

" " " January 1st, 1897, 3,300 00 

" " " January 1st, 1899, 1,000 00 

" " " January 1st, 1901, 10,000 00 

" " '' January 1st, 1904, 25,000 00 

Cash uninvested, 55 00 

Total, $41,855 00 

All of above has been accumulated since the establish- 
ment of the Board of Audit and Finance, in 1877. 

The possession of a Sinking Fund of above proportion is 
of itself a matter of gratulation, but when it is coupled 
with the fact that lolthln the same time, the debt of the 



34 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

City has actually been reduced more than one hundred 
thousand dollars^ the tax-payers cannot fail to appreciate 
the management of City affairs since 1877. 

Not only has this immense debt reduction been accom- 
plished, but the tax on Real Estate has been reduced one- 
quarter of one per cent., notwithstanding the fact that the 
assessed value thereof has been reduced $637,832. The 
license taxes have also been materially reduced. 

The above concise statement of important financial items 
is highly gratifying, and of iuterest to every citizen, for not 
only has the municipal credit been restored, but a continu- 
ation of economical administration and proper aj)plication 
of revenue, must undoubtedly lead to further reduction of 
taxes. 

All Bonds belonging to the Sinking Fund, and the 
Coupons thereto attached, have been indelibly stamped, 
"Sinking Fund, City of Wilmington, N. C," and are 
dei)osited in the vault of the Bank of New Hanover. 

Your attention is especially directed to the accompany- 
ing valuable report of Mr. Savage, your Clerk and Treas- 
urer, wherein a comparison is instituted, and the i^resent 
improved state of finances eatisfactorily and clearly 
demonstrated. 

Very Respectfully, 

NORWOOD GILES, 
Commissioner Sinlhing Fund. 



OFFICE CITY CLERK AND TREASURER, 
City of Wilmington, N. C, January 3rd, 1882. 

Norwood Giles, Esq., Chairman of Board of Andit and 

Finance^ Wilmington^ N. C: 

Sir : — In answer to your request of this date, that I 
furnish you with a "statement of the present condition of 
city finances, as compared with the same when I entered 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA . 35 

upon the duties of my office, in July 1877," I respectfully 
submit the following report : 

By the city tax book of 1877 I find Real Estate assessed 
at 13,832,890, and the rate of taxation two per cent. 

On July 1st, 1877, the debt of the Oity, as near as could 
be ascertained was about $673,000, with not a dollar in the 
Sinking Fund. Much of this debt was in past due bonds 
and coupons and a floating debt of about 115,000. There 
was no money of moment in the Treasury and an over- 
draft at Bank of f 1,200. To pay the policemen and other 
expenses for June, 1877, it was necessary to borrow |2,300 
from bank. 

The bonds were selling for seventy cents, or less, on the 
dollar, and the coupons were bought up at a discount 
ranging from ten to twenty per cent., and paid into the 
Tax Collector's office by the purchasers for taxes at par. 

The current expenses of the City for the fiscal year end- 
ing May 12th, 1877, were -^79,359.57 ; balance due Treasurer 
by his account that date, l?l,999.72. 

I find by the tax book of 1881 real estate assessed at 
$3,195,058, and the rate of taxation one and three-fourths 
per cent. The present debt of the City is, all in bonds, 
1572,100; the sinking fund is $41,800. No floating debt 
or past due coupons. The six per cent, bonds are now 
at par, and the eight per cent, bonds cannot be bought 
at 105. 
The Current Expenses for the Fiscal Year 

ending April 1st, 1881, were I 54,480 07 

Cash on hand at that date, 10,415 75 

Thus we see that Real Estate was assessed in 

1877 at 3,832,890 00 

The same Real Estate was assessed in 1881 at 3,195,058 00 

Reduction of assessment on Real Estate 637,732 00 

Total value of Taxable Propert}, Real and 

Personal, in 1881, $4,856,5.57 00 



"36 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The valuation of personal proi)erfcy is made by the tax- 
jyayers tliemselves^ and is largely in excess in 1881 ot that 
returned by them in 1877. 

The City Tax on Eeal Estate in 1877 was I 76,657 80 

The City Tax on the same Real Estate in 1881, 

with four years' improvements, is 55,913 51 

Reduction of City Tax on Real Estate, % 20,1^4: 29 

In the matter of the monthly license taxes on merchants 
1 find that the following taxes were paid per month for the 
respective years : 

1877. 1881. 

Auctioneers, $10 00 t 5 00 

Bar Rooms, 12 50 10 00 

Bakers 5 00 2 50 

-Cemmercial Brokers 5 00 3 00 

Commission Merchants, on sales of from 

15,000 to 110,000 7 50 5 00 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers, on sales of 

from 1500 to 11,000 5 00 4 00 

And all other license taxes have been reduced in the same 
proportion. 

Upon the summing up I find the Sinking Fund increased 
141,800 ; the debt reduced 1100, OCO; the tax on Real Estate 
reduced 33^ i)er cent. ; the Merchants' License tax reduced^ 
35 per cent.; the City Bonds at and above par, an advance 
of 50 per cent. 

Very Respectfully, 

HENRY SAVAGE, 
ClerJi. and, Treasurer. 



WILMINGTON, NOTITII CAROLINA. 37 

OFFICE BOARD OF AUDIT AND FINANCE. 

Wilmington, N. C, January 2ncl, 1883. 

To the Honorable, the Mayor and Aldermen., City of Wil- 
mington : 

Gentlemen :— As required by law, I herewith submit 
statement, showing the condition of the Sinkinc^ Fund oi 
your city : 
Securities Held — 

Of Matured Bonds S 1,700 

Of Bonds Maturing February 1st, 1892, 3,000 

-' January 1st, 1897, 3,700 

January 1st, 1899 1,000 

" '' " January 1st, 1901, 10,000 

January 1st, 1904, ^5,000 

Cash Uninvested 29 

Total, . - $44,529 

The value of maintaining this fund as an important factor 
in sustaining our city credit is fully recognized by erery 
one who deals in our city securities, or is at all interested 
in the good faith of the oitj toward its creditors, as it forms 
a part of the contract under which our bonds were issued. 
For it must be borne in mind that the several acts of the 
Legislature authorizing the City to issue bonds, provided 
for the creation and maintenance of a Sinking Fund for 
their gradual payment. Bat it was not until the creation 
of the Board of Audit and Finance — whose Chairman was 
made ex officio Commissioner of the Sinking Fund — that 
any attention was ever given to the subject. Hence, in 
1877 when the Board of Audit and Finance was organized, 
its chairman found no such fund in existence. While the 
XDressing demands upon the City Treasury — which was tJieii 
laboring under the heavy burden of over a hundred 
thousand dollars ^a^/ due indebtedness, gave no encour- 
aging x^rospects of establishing one— yet the law required 



B8 WILMINGTON, NORTH OAllOLlNA. 

it should be done, and the necessary machinery was set to 
work by tax assessment for that purpose. As the money 
is collected and paid over to the Commissioner of the Sink- 
ing Fund, it is invested in the City Bonds, which are regis- 
tered and stamped— both bonds and coupons — "Sinking 
Fund, City of Wilmington," and now form a permanent 
Fund, the interest of which is invested semi-annually. 
That it has grown to its present x)roportions is certainly a 
matter for congratulation, and, if prudently managed, it 
will go on increasing until our bonded debt is entirely ab- 
sorbed by it, while it gi^^s assurance meanwhile to our 
creditors that the City is mindful of its obligations and is 

preparing to meet them. 

RICHARD J. JONES, 

Commissioner Sinlcing Fund. 

CITY CONTRACTS. 

The following comprise existing contracts with the City, 
and their nature, for fiscal year ending March 81, 1883, 
to wit : 

Clarendon Water Works Co., for use of Fire Hydrants 
(there are now 105) 16,750 per annum. 

City Hospital, ((^ity paying two-fifths of expenses, County 
three-fifths) $1,000 per annum. 

T, J. Southerland, — feeding mules, keeping carts and 
harness in repair, and furnishing drivers, — ti32.50 per 
month for each mule and cart. There are now six mules 
(and one horse at $12.50 per month) $207.50 jier month, or 
$2,490 per annum. 

Wilmington Gas Light Co., — furnishing gas at $2.00 x^er 
month for each street lamp. There are now 189 street 
lami)S, making 1378 per month, or $4,536 per annum. Geo. 
W. Batson, Lamp Lighter, $1,008 per annum. 

J. L. Winner, keeping City Clock in order, $120 per 
annum. 

J. W. Taylor, furnishing lumber, $14 |)er M feet. 



WILMINGTON, NOETIl CAROLINA. 39 

J. A. Walker, rent of wliarf and small lot opposite, 
^350 per annum. 

CITY POLICE. 

The organization of the Police Force consists of one 
Chief, one Captain, three Sergeants, twentj^-five Privates, 
one Detective and one Clerk. 

The api)ropriation for this department for the fiscal year 
ending March 31st, 1883, including incidental expenses and 
equipments for the Force — such as whistles, uniforms, over- 
coats and hats, as well as pay tot extra policemen during, 
elections, holidays, and times of public excitement, is 
$19,440, of which sum there has been expended to date 
(March 1st) $15,086.83. 

The number of arrests made for the past year were 479 
and amount of fines collected $389.51. 

There were 44.5 men, women and children, who applied 
for, and were accommodated with lodging at the Station 
House. Of this number many were "tramps," passing 
through the country, others were honestly seeking work ; 
all without money or a home here. 

A considerable quantity of stolen property has been 
recovered by the Force and restored to rightful owners. 

The majority of arrests reported were for violations of 
City ordinances, yet quite a large number were for infrac- 
tions of State laws ; and the aid rendered to Coun'y 
officials in the discharge of their duties in this particular 
has been material. 

While the Chief prefers that an exacting ]3ublic should 
judge of the efficiency and worth of the Police Force, he 
desires to bear testimony to their collective merit, and to 
the manner in which they have discharged the duties 
assigned them. 

The municipal strength of the Police Force of this City 
has always been regarded as too small. There is a large 
scope embraced in the corporate limits to be patrolled. In 



40 VyiLMJNQTON, NORTH CAROLINA, 

the more populated, or business parts of the city, for the 
proper protection of i3roi:)erty, their stations must necessa- 
rily be close together at night, one on a block, thus leaving 
. vei'y few to be distributed on the outskirts, or even in the 
central portion of the city. 

As compared with the pay of the police in other Southern 
towns, their remuneration is small. 

The three Health Officers, who are placed under the 
surveillance of the Chief of Police, have also discharged 
their duties in a creditable manner. Not always meeting 
individual expectation as regards promptness in the removal 
of rubbish, or abating a temporary nuisance, they have 
been steadily on the alert, and have evinced a care and 
judgment in the discharge of their disagreeable duties, 
which has resulted in keei^ing the city in a cleanly and 
good sanitary condition. 

THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

There are at present in service three Steam Fire Engines, 
all in excellent order. Two of them have hydrant connec- 
tions with the Water Works, which have operated satis- 
factorily. There is also one hand engine in good order, but 
which is never jised. These, with a Hook and Ladder 
Company, two Bucket Companies, one Hose Company, 
3,500 feet of good hose, and about 500 feet of old hose (not 
reliable), constitute the available means of protection 
from fire. 

The Department, now in charge of Chief Engineer Charles 
D, Myers, has always maintained the highest character for 
promptness, efficiency and reliability. It is composed of 
vigorous, public-spirited young men (white and colored) 
of the best class, and can always be depended ux^on. The 
service is entirely voluntary, and although our citizens 
generally admit its effectiveness, it has merited, for years, a 
more substantial recognition at the hands of property- 
holders, and especially of underwriters of local fire risks. 



WILMINGTOX, NORTH CAROLINA. 41 

Capt. F. G. Robinson, the recently retired chief, brought, as 
a guarantee of his capacity, an experience of many years 
as Foreman of the Little Giant Engine Co. No. 1, and his 
responsible duties have been performed with credit to him- 
self and honor to the Dei^artment. For six years the 
duties of this office devolved upon Col. Roger Moore, 
whose administration was characterized by an efficiency 
probably equal to any paid Fire Department in the United 
States. A clearer head, a better executive, or a more 
patriotic servant of the x)ublic has never, in the opinion of 
many of our citizens, been elected in this community. 

The following list comprises the present Fire Depart- 
ment : 

CHAS. D. MYERS, CJuef Engineer, 

Howard Relief Fire Engine Compa:>v, No. 1. 

A. Adrian, Foreman, 

H. Hintze, First Assistant, 

M. Rathgen, Second Assistant, 

Little Giant Fire Engine Company, No. 1. 

E. G. Parmelee, Foreman. 

W. C. VonGlaiin, First Assistant. 

M. Newman, . . Second Assistant, 

Cape Fear Fire Engine Company, No. 3. (Colored.) 

Valentine Howe, Foreman. 

Ben. Siiepard, First Assistant. 

J. Bland, Second Assistant. 

Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1. 

R. H. Grant, Foreman. 

N. A. Quince, First Assistant. 

B. G, Empie Second Assistant. 



42 WILMINGTOi^, NORTH CAROLINA. 

CITY HOSPITAL. 

The Wilmington City Hospital was opened for reception 
of patients, November 1,1882. By an act of the Legisla- 
ture, the Hospital is a joint institution of the county and 
city, the former bearing three-fifths of the expense, and 
the latter two-fifths. 

Up to date, about 100 patients, afflicted with various med- 
ical and surgical diseases, have been received and cared for, 
and quite a number of important surgical operations have 
been performed successfully. 

Several pay patients have availed themselves of the 
accommodations of the Hospital for treatment, and have 
I)aid therefore about two hundred dollars. 

The Hospital rates for board and nursing, including 
hiedicines, are from 70 cents to $1.60 per day. Surgical 
operations are charged for extra, as agreed upon by the 
patients, in accordance with their means. 

The Dispensary, located in the main Hospital building, 
furnishes all needful medical supplies to the inmates, 
besides giving many prescriptions to the outside county 
and city poor. The surgeon in charge resides on the 
premises, and gives the most of his time to the manage- 
ment of the institution and grounds. 

The surgeon makes a monthly report of expenses, articles 
furnished, number and condition of the patients, to a 
Board of Managers, consisting of three members of the 
Board of County Commissioners, and two of the Board of 
Aldermen. All accounts are promptly audited, endorsed 
by the Chairman, and paid each month. 

The Hospital greatly needs more room for patients, a 
well-lighted operating room, and a mortuary, or proper 
temporary receptacle for the dead. A report representing 
these wants has been made to the Board of Managers, and 
arrangements are being made to construct the building. 
The officers consist of a resident physician, a steward and 
a matron. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 43 

The present suro-eon in charge is Dr. Wm. Walter Lane, 
whose capacity and fitness for this responsible duty is 
generally acknowledged by the profession, and whose 
energy and carefulness with reference to details has been 
repeatedly complimented by the county and city govern- 
ment. He desires me to say that it is his purpose to make 
this institution a credit and honor to the city, as well 
as a boon to those unfortunates who may seek its ben- 
efits. There is no more worthy object of benevolence in 
our community ; and I take pleasure in commending it 
most heartily to our generous x^eople as worthy of their 
support. 

The present public allowance is clearly inadequate, and 
any private contributions will be appropriated by the 
surgeon in accordance with the wishes of the donor. 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT. 

The administration of the County Government is vested 
in five Commissioners, viz ; 

Horace A. Bagg, Chairman, 

B. G. Worth, 

Roger Moore, 

James A. Montgomery, 

E. L. Pearoe, 
who are elected by the Board of Magistrates of the county 
for the term of two years, and are styled The Board of 
Commissioners of the County of !N"ew Hanover. They hold 
their meetings on the first Monday in each month and are 
paid $2 per diem for their services. 

The Sheriff of the county is S. H. Manning, who gives 
bonds in the sum of 195,000, with D. L. Russell, E. J. 
Pennypacker, E. E. Burruss, H. E. Scott, and A. W. Shaf- 
fer as his sureties. Paid by fees of his office. 

The Treasurer of the county is Owen Birney, who gives 
bond in the sum of $40,000 with E. E. Burruss, Alfred 
Martin, H. M. Bowden and Wm. Larkins as his sureties. 
Paid by commissions. 



44 WILMINC4T0N, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Coroner of the county is David Jacobs, who gives 
bond in the sum of 12,000, with H. E. Scott and S. H. 
Manning as his sureties. Paid by fees of his office. 

The Register of Deeds of the county is Jos. E. Sampson, 
who gives bond in tlie sum of $5,000, with F. W, Foster 
and S. H. Manning as his sureties. He is also ex officio 
Clerli of the Board of Commissioners. Paid by the fees of 
his office and $2 per diem as said Clerk. 

COURTS. 

There are two terms of two weeks each of the Superior 
Courts of the State held in the county of New Hanover 
on the thirteenth Monday after the first Monday in March 
and September of each year. In this Court only civil 
actions are tried. The Judges are paid by the State. 

The Clerk of this Court is Stacey Van Amringe, who gives 
bond in the sura of $10,000 with George Chadbourn and 
H. E. Scott as his sureties. Paid by fees of his office. 

There are six terms of the Criminal Court of New Hano- 
ver county held on the first Monday in April, June, 
August, October and December, and on the second Mon- 
day in Febraar}^ The Judge of this Court is Hon. O. P. 
Meares, who is paid a salary by the county of $2,500. 

The Clerk of this Court is John W. Dunham, who gives 
bond in the sum of $10,000, with F. AV. Kerchner, W. B. 
McKoy, Henry P. West and Wm. Larkins as his sureties. 
Paid by fees of his office. 

The Solicitor of this Court is Benj. R. Moore, who is 
paid by the fees of his office. He is also the attorne}^ for 
the Board of Commissioners, and as such is paid a salary 
of $500 per annum. 

The attorneys residing in the City of Wilmington and 
practising in these Courts are 

Georgk Davis, Licensed in 1840. 

Maugeii London, " " 184L 

DiT.\cAN K. McRak, '' -' 1S41. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 45 

and Thos. W. Strange, Licensed in 1878. 

constituting the firm of McRae & Strange. 

John L. Holmes, ' " " 1849. 

DuBrutz Cutlar, " "1853. 

Duncan J. DeVane, " "1858. 

Daniel L. EussELL, " "1866. 

and A. Gf. Ricaud, " " 1879. 

constituting tlie firm of Russell & Ricaud. 

Chas. M. Stedman, " "1866. 

WiLLiAN Latimer, " " 1877. 

and Edward S. Latimer, " "1879, 

constituting the firm of Stedman & Latimer. 

Marsden Bellamy, " "1866. 

Junius Davis, " "1868. 

Eugene S. Martin, " "1874. 

Frank H. Darby, " "1874. 

John D. Bellamy, Jr., " " 1875. 

AVm. B. McKoY " "1879. 

John C. Davis, " "1882. 

Ed. H. King, " "1882. 

COUNTY magistrates. 

The following is the list of Magistrates recently appointed 
by the Legislature for New Hanover county : 

WILMINGTON township. 

John M. Henderson, Wm. H. Strauss, John R. Melton, 
John Cowan, Wm. W. Harriss, Sol. Bear, E. D. Hall, 
John S. James, John L. Cantwell, James W. King, Lemuel 
H. Bowden, Walker Meares, Matthew J. Heyer, David G. 
Worth, Charles H. Robinson, Abram David, Owen Fen- 
nell, Jr., James Madden, John C. Millis, Charles A. Pnce, 
J. D. K. Klander. 

MASONBORO TOWNSHIP. 

B. S. Montford, A. J. Johnson, A. B. George. 

FEDERAL POINT TOWNSHIP. 

Jacob H. Home, John Canady, Elijah Williams, 



46 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

CAPE FEAR TOWNSHIP. 

Oscar M. Filyaw, AVm. Cromwell, John E. St. George. 

HARNETT TOWNSHIP. 

Charles H, Alexander, E. W. Manning, (George Harper. 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE COUNTY IN 1882. 

Receii^ts exclusive of Seliool Fund as shown in settle- 
ment of Sheriff with Treasurer, January 18th, 1883, 
$28,639.64. 

Amount in hands of Treasurer on that date $ 31,050.62. 

Debt of County evidenced by Bonds at 6 per 

cent interest due March 1st, 1887, 13,000.00. 

Estimated expenses of County for ensuing fiscal 

year, ending November 30th, 1883, 26,250.00. 

Expenses for the last fiscal year, 26,582.55. 

There is no floating debt. 

Included in the $31,050.62 is $13,000 which is set aside to 
l^ay the bonds. 

The Tax Levy the past year, 1882, was, 

State Tax on property, on $100 valuation $ .40^^ 

County" " " " " " 34i 



Total, ... $ .75 

Included in the 40i cents levied by tlie State is 12^ cents 
for the School Fund. 

State Tax on each poll, $ 1.2U 

County" " " " 1.03i 

Included in the $1.21|^ levied by the State is 37^ cents for 
the School Fund. 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 47 



ANNUAL STATEMENT 

Of the Board of Commissioners for the County of New HanOver, for th^ 

Fiscal Year Beginning the ist day of December, 1881, and 

Ending the 30th day of November, 1882. 

■^«.».«»- 

tfie:a.sx7Re:r*s report. 



General Fund Account, New Hanover County in Account with Elijah Hewlett, 
Treasurer, from December 1st, 1881, to November 3Uth, 1882. 



DR. • 

To amount transferred to Special Fund Sl.OOO 00 

" " " '• " 1,800 00 

•' " paid Warrants 25,990 03 

" " paid Commissions 760 22 3i29,0r>5 25 

Balance 20,475 8.} 

S55,531 08 
OR. 

Dy Balance December 1st, 1881 120,298 00 

" S. H. Manning, Sheriff, General Tax $27,631 65 

" S. H. Manning, Jury Tax !7 3o 

" S, H. Manning, Schedule B Tax 0,500 00 

" J. E. Sampson, Register, Marriage License Tax 227 05 

" S. VanAmringe, C. S. C, Jury Tax 17 00 

" Delinquent Tax 781 40 

" Cronly d- Morris, nett sale Stove 07 

" Amount from Columbus County 55 50 :;f35,233 02 

lj.55,531 C8 

Special Fund, New Hanover County, in Account with Elijah Hewlett, County 
Treasurer, from December 1st, 1881, to November 30th, 1882. 

DR. 

Paid for Bonds and Premiums S 7,773 60 

" for Coupons 915 00 

" Treasurer's Commissions 147 46 18,836 06 

Balance S145 65 

18,981 71 
CR. 

By Balance December 1st, 1881 $3,573 38 

'■ Amount transferred from general fund , [fl.OOO 00 

'• " 1,300 00 

" S.H. Manning, Sheriff 3,108 33 $5,408 33 

$8,981 71 



48 WILMINGTON, NOKTII OAEOLINA. 

County TrG.vsiirer's Report of Receipts and Disbursements of .School Fund from 
December 1st, 1881, to November 30th, 1882. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance on hand as per last report... $ 8,5J6 00 

Received General .State and County Poll Tax, 188J 3,49(i 60 

Property School Tax, 1882 5,970 63 

" from Fines, Forfeitures and Penalties 256 61 

" from Liquor License 613 60 

" from Sale of Estrays , 7 38 

S18,8C0 01 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Paid Teachers of Schools for Whites S3,907 25 

" Colored 5,177 50 

" for School Houses (white) 405 17 

" ^ " (colored) 1,450 36 

" Countj' Superintendent 408 00 

" Register of Deeds 75 00 

" County Commissioners 96 50 

'• Treasurer's Commissions 274 38 

Total Disbursements 111,881 16 

Balance $ 7,006 78 



CRIMINAL COURT. 

Judge »2,500 00 

Clerk 1,014 39 

Solicitor , 553 50 

Sheriflf. , 724 05 

Jurors 2,601 45 

Witnesses 973 31 



?S,300 70 



SUPERIOR COURT. 



Clerk $ 199 07 

Sheriflf 22 25 

Jurors 588 80 

Witnesses 1 60 

812 32 

Attorney 535 00 

Commissioners 853 60 

Coroner 217 10 

Constables 228 94 

Justices of Peace 698 05 

Register of Deeds 434 09 

Advertising 126 00 

Roads and Bridges 375 81 

Clerks, Auditing Committee, Janitor, Ice, <fec 1,272 OS 

Elections ; 618 22 

Poor House 2,806 55 

Out Door Poor 2,400 97 

Jail 1,682 6(» 

Public Buildings 1,1(!(; ;i9 

Stationery and Printing 362 76 

Tax Listing 1,039 00 

Tax Remitted 47 52 

Old Claims „ 26 74 

Clerks of other Counties 29 50 

Sheriffs of other Counties 38 95 

Superintendent of Health 90O GO 

Hospital 1,510 00 

$26,582 .55 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 49 



Current Expenses proper of County $25,042 4d 

County Proportionate part of Expenses of City Hospital l.oJO OG 



S,582 55 



BONDED DEBT. 

Bonded debt due March, 1887 S15,80() 

Floating debt ()0,0U0 

TAX LEVY OF 1883. 

State Tax on Property 4014 

County Tax on Property 341^ 

Total 75 

State Tax on Poll 81.211^ 

(Jounty Tax on Poll 1.033^ 

Total $2.25 

AMOUNT DUE EACH SCHOOL DISTRICT. 

District No. 1, White $ 226 20 

" 2, " ],.31t) <)7 

" " 3, " 78 (iS 

" 4, " 72 4(5 

" " 5, " 249 5!t 

" " 6, " 2 73 

Total White $1,976 61 

District No. 1, Colored $3,944 58 

" 2, " 447 Si 

" 3, " 71 10 

' " 4, " 255 81 

" 5, " 259 77 

" 6, " 6 04 

Total Colored, $4,985 11 

Total White 1,976 64 

Balance general School Fund 45 03 

$7,006 78 



B. G. WORTH, Chairman, \ 

ROGER MOORE, V Auditing Committee. 

H. A. BAGG, j 



Treasurer's report shows on hand to General Fund 
$26,475.83 out of which the County is prepared to jDay the 
Bonded debt and is anxious to do so, in fact will pay pre- 
mium for Bonds of 1 per cent, and accrued interest, $2,800 
of the 115,800 of indebtedness have been bought at this 
premium since 1st January. 

POPULATION. 

From the following tables, it is apparent that the increase 
in our population for the last decade is of a steady and 
healthy growth. We can therefore reasonably estimate 
our present population at about 19,000. 



50 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 



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WILMINGTON, NOllTIl CAROLIN.A. 51 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

We have good cause to congratulate ourselves on the 
flourishing condition of our Public or Common Schools. 
Elementary education is now within the reach of every 
child amongst us, with no cost to the parents, and there are 
but few children (at least of the white population) who do 
not avail themselves of this privilege. These schools are 
provided with competent teachers, and are under the con- 
stant supervision of Mr. M. C. S. Noble, whose education, 
experience in teaching, and indomitable industry, in every 
way qualify him for this responsible position. 

The management of our Common Schools is in the hands 
of the five County Commissioners. These Commissioners 
form the County Board of Education, and appoint three 
School Committeemen for each District, and the School 
Committee, in their turn, appoint teachers and oversee the 
general management of the schools. 

The County Superintendent is appointed by the Board 
of Justices of the Peace. 

The s^^stem, surrounded in this manner, by all the safe- 
guards necessary to protect both the interests of the chil- 
dren and those of the tax-payer, works well in this city. 

Wilmington township, which is coextensive with the citj" 
of Wilmington, has two school districts, in each of which 
is one for the whites and one for the blacks. 

District (No. I) White, lies North of Market Street. 
(No. 2). " " South " 

" (No. 1) Black " North of Chestnut Street. 

(No. 2) " " South " '• 

Hemenway Graded School, District No. 1, white race, 
is on Fourth Street, between Red Cross and Campbell. 

Peabody Graded School, District No. 1, colored race, 
is on Fifth, between Red Cross and Campbell streets. 

Union Graded School, District No. 2, white race, is on 
Sixth, between Nun and Church streets. 



ri2 WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 

Williston Graded Scliool, District No. 2, colored race, 
is on Seventh, between Ann and Nun streets, 
Naniber of children of school age in District No. 1, 

white 1,009 

Number of children of school age in District No. 2, 

white 943 

Total 1,952 

Amount apportioned $3,904 

4 Number of children of school age in District No. 1, 

colored 1,606 

Number of children of school age in District No. 2, 

colored 1,510 



Total 3,116 

Amount apportioned $6,232 

Average daily attendance in white schools about 300 

" " " " colored " " 425 

Number of teachers in white schools 8 

" colored " 12 

In a speech by Senator Blair, of New Hampshire, June 
13, 1882, allusion was made to the disproportionate attend- 
ance of scliool children in North Carolina to the popula- 
tion, in the following language: "Wilmington. North 
Carolina, has an enrollment of 866, or 18 per cent., while 
82 per cent, of the children of that city would api3ear to be 
without means of public education.'* This reflects unjustly 
upon our public school system. 

The scliool laws of Massachusetts require the attendance 
of children between the jiges of 5 and 15 years- those of 
North Carolina between 6 and 21 years. 

It is well known that the greater number of both male 
and female children leave school before they reach the age 
of 17 years; and, as all over that age are registered as 
attending no school, it would appear that there is a want 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 53 

of proper interest in the matter of education ; whereas both 
sexes generally attain all the elements of an education at 
or about 17 years of age, at which time they are generally 
obliged to work for a livelihood. 

The cost of each pupil j)er school year in Wilmington is 
about $8.50— in New York city it is about $30. 

It may interest some of our people to know that Golds- 
boro' levies a special tax for its Graded School, and al- 
though a town of only 3,300 inhabitants, has an average 
daily attendance of 447. 

Wilson, a town of 1,400 inhabitants, has an average of 
nearly 400 attendants, and has raised by private subscrip- 
tion in the past two years 16,000 for the support of its 
school. 

Special features of the Wilmington schools consist in 
the fact that they are all thoroughly graded, and con- 
ducted on the same general principle. The teachers are. 
well qualified, and many of them have made special prepa- 
ration by attending the State Normal School. The Prin- 
cipal conducts four teachers' meetings during each month- 
two for the white teachers and two for the colored teachers. 
At these meetings, school government and methods of 
teaching are discussed, and work for the next two weeks 
is properly assigned. While the schools are in session, the 
Principal goes from room to room, takes notes on the 
teachers' manner, and the decorum of the pupils, and at 
times conducts the recitation himself ; and while inspecting, 
forms, in a great measure, the subject of discussion at 
teachers' meetings. Occasionally, to illustrate any new 
method of instruction, the teachers are resolved into a 
model class, wTien the recitation is first conducted by the 
Principal, and afterwards by the teachers in turn. In this 
way the x^eculiarities of each teacher are brought to view, 
criticised, and then approved or disapproved, according as 
they are good or bad. 

The members of the District School Committees from 



54 WILMINGTON^, NORTH CAUOLINA, 

time to time, either in a body or individually, visit the 
schools and inspect the character of the work done. 

The}^ pay particular attention to the most economical 
methods, and are careful to employ only thoroughly capa- 
ble teachers. 

In this way, and with the aid of instructors working for 
a reputation, they hope to make the schools under their 
charge, an honor and an ornament to the cit}', and an object 
of interest to visitors from abroad. 

The members of the School Committee are : 
District No. 1 — Donald MacRae, Chairman ; Wm. M. 
Parker, Jos. E. Sampson. 

District No. 2 — James H. Chadbourn, Chairman ; Walker 
Meares, John Norwood. 

The question as to the effect of education upon therising 
generation of colored people is not easy to solve. Sufficient 
time has not elapsed since their emancipation to determine 
how much, if any, benefit has resulted. For several years 
after the war, this field seemed to commend itself in a pecu- 
liar sense to the philanthropy of the North. The disor- 
ganized state of civil affairs, and the impoverished condi- 
tion of the Southern people, p)revented them from educating 
their own children, and no money could therefore be raised 
for the education of the negroes. Race prejudice, inten- 
sified by the institution of slavery, cramped subsequent 
efforts of our people to accomplish anything in this direc- 
tion. The negroes being freed by the act of the Northern 
people, were therefore regarded in a special sense as their 
wards, and they were under obligations to meet that 
responsibility. Peculiar difficulties have attended the 
efforts of Northern philanthropists, such as a natural 
antagonism, aggravated by political emissaries coming in 
some instances in the garb of teachers, and the wide- 
spread and profound ignorance and superstition of the ne- 
groes themselves. In spite of this, there has been a steady 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 55 

improvement, most marked where the efforts at real instruc- 
tion have been thorough and permanent. In the first few 
years of the experiment, the worlv was sadly marred, not 
only by the political bias and aspirations of its projectors, 
but by a show and parade on public occasions highly offen- 
sive to the intelligent and dignified class of our citizens. 

In later years, beginning with the administration of the 
Rev. Mr. Blake, careful observers in our community — gen- 
tlemen who have had good opportunity for observation — 
have noted a marked improvement in the habits, the morals 
and industry of many of the negro school children. 

Mr. Dodge's system requiring a nominal fee for tuition, 
has proved an excellent plan, insuring regular attendance 
and fostering a spirit of independence perhaps surx)rising 
to many who are familiar with the dependent nature of the 
race. Whatever may be the technical details of the methods 
adopted in Mr. Dodge's school, the effect is beyond ques- 
tion a good one, as the boys after leaving this institution 
get employment more readily than others, because their 
moral principles are higher, and because they are generally 
better fitted for intelligent occupation than the majority of 
those who profess to have received an elementary edu- 
cation. 

The people of Wilmington have great cause for thank- 
fulness that our negro x^opulatlon is so law-abiding and 
faithful to duty ; and to take courage from the results 
already accomplished in a transition so violent— from a 
life of slavery to that of freedom and citizenshii) in the 
eyes of the law. The utmost harmony has prevailed be- 
tween the races for many years past, and instances of dis- 
agreement between emxDloyers and employes are far more 
rare than among the whites in the North. With direct 
reference to this subject, I have requested the Agent of 
the American Missionary Society in Wilmington to give 
me a short outline of his work in our community, which 
is herewith appended, and I doubt not, a large number of 



56 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

our intelligent citizens who read this will be surx)rised at 
the ma.^nitude of the undertaking, and the efficiency of its 
administration. 

"Dear Sir :— In compliance with your request for a con- 
densed statement of the work and expenditures of the 
American Missionary Association in this city, I have the 
honor as their agent, of giving you the following report : 

The American Missionary Association began its work 
among the Freedmen in this city in the month of April, 
1865. The object of this work was to impart intellectual 
and moral instruction, and to teach an orderly Christian 
life. To this end a corps of eight teachers oj^ened public 
free schools in different localities in the city. The number 
of teachers has varied from time to time, sometimes being 
more and sometimes less than at the beginning. At the 
same time, afternoon schools for women and night schools 
for both sexes were opened. Sunday School work was 
carried on in connection with these schools from the first. 

This work was sustained alone by the Association till 
1869, when the School Board of Wilmington began to 
co-operate with it in sustaining free schools, and continued 
to do so until 1873, when the local authorities concluded to 
discontinue further co-operative school work, and to 
establish public schools of their own. This led to tlie 
re- organization of the Association's work, and to the estab- 
lishment of the Preparatory Dei^artments of the present 
Normal School, which were opened for the admission of 
pupils October, 1873, with a small tuition fee of one dollar 
per month. The various departments of our work were at 
that time condensed into what we could do in the one build- 
ing on the corner of Nun and Seventh streets as it then 
stood ; but we soon became uncomfortably crowded. The 
need of establishing regular and orderly worship became 
apparent, and for a time this was conducted in the school 
room. Through the representations of Mr. Woodworth, of 
Boston, Mr. Gregory, of Marblehead, Mass., became inter- 
ested in our wants, and gave the money to build the church 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 67 

edifice which now stands on Nun street. This led to a visit 
from Mr. Gregory at the time of the dedication of the 
church. Upon examining the work done under unfavora- 
ble conditions, he was so impressed with the importance of 
the work itself, and the need of enlarged facilities, that he 
furnished the means for building the Home which the 
teachers now occuj)y, and for the renovation and enlarge- 
ment of the old building for school work ; thus giving us 
our present appointments, which seem well adapted to the 
work to be done. 

The entire expenditure of the Association for the work 
at this station, including Mr. Gregory's liberal gift, is in 
round numbers $90,000. $18,800 of this amount has been 
expended since 1879 in enlargements and improvements. 
At the time of the discontinuance of co-oj^erative work with 
the Association, the city bought the building known as the 
"Williston School" of the Association, for the sum of 
13,000. $500 of this purchase money was given to the 
city by the Association to be expended in repairing the 
building. 

In addition to any advantage which may have come to 
the city from the work, more than one hundred of our 
pupils have gone out as teachers among their people, 

Now, while I do not claim perfection for the methods, or 
that the workers have always been the wisest and the best, 
I am willing to submit the question of the usefulness of 
our work in this city to the decision of the good people of 
Wilmington, and to abide by their verdict. 

Yours Respectfully, 

D. D. DODGE. 
Agent A. M. A. 

UNION FREE SCHOOL. 

It ajppears from reliable data, that the question of build- 
ing this public school house, was brought to the attention 
of the citizens of Wilmington through Mr. John W. Barnes, 
Sr., in the summer of 1856. A meeting of citizens was held, 
and a subscription list opened for j)rocuring means to pur- 



58 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

cliase a lot and material necessary for the construction of a 
building. 

Mr. S. N. Martin headed the list with a subscription of 
1100, and Mr Miles Costin presented the lot, the estimated 
value of which w^as ^290. Other subscriptions soon followed, 
and in a short time a sufficient amount was realized to 
warrant the erection of the building, which was finished 
during the winter, and styled the ''Union Free School.'" 

Messrs. A. H. Van Bokkelen, P. W. Fanning and B. G. 
Worth, — who were always identified with the best inter 
ests of Wilmington, and to whom this place is indebted in 
the past for numberless acts of benevolence, — gave the 
undertaking a hearty and steady support, and were after- 
wards more closely identified with the school as com- 
mitteemen. 

The deed for the lot was executed by Mr. Costin to James 
G. Green, John W. Barnes, and Thomas J, Freshwater, as 
Trustees, November Brd. 1856, and recorded December 31st, 
of the same year. This deed empowers the County Court 
to aijpoint successors in case of death or resignation. 

In April of the ensuing year (1857), a meeting of the 
subscribers was held in the new building, in which it was 
determined to start the school on the 1st of May^ and to 
continue three months, experimentally. To this end 
Messrs. S. N. Martin, A. H. Van Bokkelen and P. W. 
Fanning were constituted a committee to receive contribu- 
tions, employ a teacher and p>ut the "Union Free School*' 
in operation. 

The committee i^roceeded to secure and furnish a supply 
of school books (which was replenished from time to time 
during the existence of the school) and employed Mr. John 
W. Barnes as teacher. 

At the close of this short session, the committee being- 
impressed with the necessity of continuing the school, the 
first annual session was accordingly commenced October 
1st, 1857. 



\VILMINGT01S% NOltTIl CAROLIN.X. 59 

Owing to want of harmony between the State Common 
School Committee and the "Union Free School" Committee, 
the apportionment of the Common School Fund for this 
District (No. 2) could not be made available for the enter- 
prise during this year. 

In the spring of the ensuing year, however, in response 
to a petition from citizens, the "Board of Superintendents 
of Common Schools" for New Hanover County remodelled 
the town districts (then two in number), dividing each into 
two districts, and appointing new committees in the low^er 
or southern districts (Nos. 2 and 58), in which this 
school was situated, whereby it would receive the benefit 
of the funds appropriated for both, and also the advantage 
of two co-operating committees— lending an influence to 
the enterprise wiiich secured its continuance until July 1st, 
1863 — a period of six years. 

The committees appointed, as above mentioned, were the 
original "Union Free School" Committee for District No. 2, 
and John W. Barnes, George M. Bishop and W. H. Biddle 
for District No. 58. 

In consequence of the absence of Mr. Martin from the 
State during the year 1862, B. G. Worth, Esq, was 
appointed as his successor, and nobly sustained the school 
from his private means, in connection with the amount 
received from the Common School Fund during its last 
annual session. 

The school house originally seated about one hundred 
pupils. During the vacation of 1859, however, the teacher 
succeeded in procuring money sufficient to build an addi- 
tional room, capable of holding forty small scholars. Prior 
to this, many were refused admission for want of room. 
The w^hole number of pupils in attendance during the six 
years was 380. Of this number 192 were males and 188 
females. 

The largest number in attendance at one time was 145. 
The smallest number, except during the months of June 



60 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

and July of each year, was not less than 100, and this 
was before the additional room was built for primary 
classes. 

During the winter of 1865-66, there was a free school in 
the Union School House, taught by the Rev. Mr Thurston, 
and supported by the Soldiers Memorial Society of Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

In December 1866, Miss Amy M. Bradley came to Wil- 
mington under the auspices of the American Unitarian 
Association, and the above named society'', and on January 
9th, 1867, opened the Union School House with a beginning 
of 3 pupils, which was shortly increased to 157. She was 
assisted the first term ending June 30, by Miss Gerrish and 
Miss Rush, and during the term, built a recitation room at 
an expense of $141.50, which 'was paid for by the private 
contributions of a few citizens of Wilmington. The remain- 
der of expenses, total $1,594.07, was paid by her principals 
in the North. 

During the second year the number of pupils was 
increased to 188, and the expenses to $1,731.74, of which 
$233 was contributed in Wilmington, and the remainder by 
Northern people. 

The third term was divided by her charge of Union 
School (223 pupils), Hemenway School (157 pupils), and 
Pioneer School (45 pupils), at an expense of 7,328.55, 
during which she bought land for the site of Hemenway 
School, '1i^l,000 being given by Wilmington citizens, and 
tlie remainder of expenses contributed by Northern 
people. 

Her fourth term was classed Normal School (60 j)upils), 
Union School (211 pupils), Hemenway School (176 pupils), 
expenses $4,866.59, during which she built a Norrnal 
School room, and received toward salaries of 7 assistants, 
$1,500 from the Peabody Fnnd, and the remainder from 
lier friends in the North. 

The fifth term, October 10th, 1870, to June 30th, 1871, 
Union and Hemenway Schools, expended $5,983.81, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 61 

(of vvhicli the State provided 11,286.70, and the Peabody 
Fund $1,000) retaining 7 assistant teachers and enrolling 
192 and 205 pupils, respectively. 

In addition to their annual report, November 23rd, 1871, 
the School Committee of the Township of Wilmington, 
James H. Chadbourn being Chairman, made the following 
statement : 

''In the first communication of the committee to your 
Board, you were informed that there were no school-houses 
within the limits of the township belonging to the State or 
county ; and in a subsequent communication, dated 
February 8, 1870, a proposition was made to you for the 
purchase of two school-houses (one for each race), for the 
sum of $3,000 each, and you were requested to levy a tax 
upon the property of the township, which would produce 
the sum of $6,000 for that purpose. 

The proposition was agreed to, and a tax levied, which 
yielded the sum of $5,738.61. 

The Committee with the approval of your Board and the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, purchased the 
Hemenway school-house of Miss Amy M. Bradley, for 
$3,000, with the promise on her part, that the money she 
received for it should be expended in continuing her two 
schools then in successful operation. This understanding 
was carried out in good faith, and to the entire satisfaction 
of the committee. 

The cost of sustaining the Union and Hemenway Gfram- 
mar Schools for the past two years, has been $10,850.40, — 
$1,266.70 of this sum was received from the State, 2,500 
from the Peabody Fund^ $3,000 from the sale of the 
Hemenway school-house, -and the balance, $4,083.70, from 
the friends of Miss Bradley and her work. 

Seven teachers have been constantly employed for a term 
of nine months each year. The number of scholars has 
been over 400, and the average attendance about 300. 
These schools have attracted the attention of all who feel 



62 WiLMIlSrGTON, IsroKTII CAPtOLINA. 

any interest in free schools in this city, and by good judges 
who have visited them, have been compared favorabl}- witli 
the best grammar schools in the country." 

In October, 1871, agreeably to the foregoing understand- 
ing, the advanced divisions of the Union and Hemenway 
schools were united under the name of 

thp: tileston normal school, 

and the session opened in the Union School House, — 
the Hemenway School House having been ijurchased by 
the county. In October, 1872, this school was moved into 
the new building on Ann street, erected by that distinguish- 
ed philanthrox^ist and friend of education, Mrs. Augustus 
Hemenway, of Boston, under the supervision of James 
Walker, builder, of Wilmington, at a cost of $30,000. Mrs. 
Hemenway subsequently ai)propriated annually $5,000 
to the support of the school, aggregating at present the 
sum of $90,000 for the benefit of the education of the white 
children of Wilmington, in recognition of which, to the 
shame and reproach of our city and State, no public 
acknowledgement has ever been made. 

In the earlier part of her work. Miss Bradley's object 
was often misunderstood by our sore-hearted people; but 
in recent years, hundreds of homes in our midst bear cheer- 
ful testimony to the genuine and substantial good she has 
accomplished. The system and course of instruction has 
been thorough, practical and comprehensive; the discipline, 
by moral suasion, inflexible and effective ; and the result, 
— the graduation of hundreds of our young people of 
limited means, in all the essential branches of an educa- 
tion which compares favorably with that of any institution 
in the State, fitted for any walk in life, elevated in tone and 
morality, and impressed with natural feelings of grateful- 
ness to her through whose instrumentality they were 
saved from a life of comx^arative ignorance and obscurity. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAUOIvINA. 63 

One of the noblest and most effective aims of the institu- 
tion, has been the preparatory education of boys for the 
mechanical professions. AVitli unusual discernment Miss 
Bradley saw that the avenues of the learned professions 
were being crowded with mediocrity, and that our count- 
ing-houses were filled to overflowing, with little i^rospect 
of advancement, and that the mechanical trades, — degraded 
in public estimation by false notions of the dignity of 
labor, — were offering extraordinary attractions in remu- 
nerative and abundant work, with every encouragement 
for excellence in all dex:)artments of skilled workmanship. 

With this in view, many of our boys have been pre- 
pared by her efficient instruction, for intelligent appren- 
tices as machinists, boiler-makers, carpenters, masons, and 
blacksmiths ; others for matriculation at the Boston School 
of Technology, with higher aims as mechanical and mining 
engineers. 

There is nothing superficial in the work of this school. 
An hour's visit will convince the most skeptical that the 
Principal is thoroughly in earnest, that her assistants are 
imbued with the same spirit, efficient in the highest de- 
gree, forbearing and patient, and that the good it has 
accomplished is simj^ly incalculable. 

The present mumber of pupils is over 800, and the 
government and course of study is as follows : 

MISS AMY M. BRADLEY, Principal. 

teachers : 

Mrs. Mary E. Russell, Miss Ida Earns, 

Miss Atta L. Nutter, Miss Kate L. Alderman, 

Miss Marie R. Simonds, Miss Minnie Bogart, 

Miss Josephine Folger, Miss Emma McDougall. 
Miss Mary L. Alderman, 



04 WILMIJSTGTON, NORTH CAKOLINA. 

COURSE OF STUDY. — (tILESTON NORMAL SCHOOL). 



1, 


Self Government. 


17. 


Physical Geography 


2. 


Calisthenics. 


18. 


Mineralogy. 


3. 


Vocal Music. 


19. 


Geology. 


4. 


Reading 


20, 


Natural Philosophy 


6. 


Spelling, 


21. 


Chemistry. 


6. 


Writing. 


22. 


Algebra. 


7. 


Drawing. 


23. 


Geometry. 


8. 


Arithmetic. 


24. 


Trigonometry. 


9. 


Grammar. 


2o. 


Book-Keeping. 


10. 


Geography. 


26. 


Civil Government. 


11. 


Botany. 


27. 


Rhetoric, 


12. 


Zoology. 


28. 


English Literature, 


13. 


History United States. 


29. 


Latin. 


14, 


Physiology. 


30. 


French, 


15. 


Psychology. 


31. 


German. 


16. 


General History. 


32. 


Spanish. 



CHURCHES. 

There is pirobably no place in the State where the Sab- 
bath is more hallowed, or the attendance upon Divine 
worship more general in proportion to the poiDulation than 
in Wilmington. There are 38 places of public worship ; 
the principal church buildings being St. James' (Episcopal), 
St. John's (Episcopal), St. Paul's (Episcopal), St. Mark's 
(colored Episcopal), First Presbyterian, Second Presbyte- 
rian, Chestnut Street Presbyterian (colored), St. Thomas' 
Pro Cathedral (Roman Catholic), Front Street Methodist, 
Fifth Street Methodist, St. Stephens' (colored Methodist), 
St. Luke's (colored Methodist), First Baptist, Second Baj)- 
tist, First Baptist (colored). Temple of Israel (Hebrew), 
Congregational and Lutheran. The average Sunday at- 
tendance of whites is estimated at 3,600, and that of the 
negroes 6,000. The value of church property is estimated 
between 1265,000 and 1270,000. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 65 

SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

There are twenty-eight benevolent organizations in the city 
of Wilmington, of which twenty-two are white, and six col- 
ored. First in order, as in age, is St. John's Lodge No. 1 
F. & A. M. This was probably the first Lodge organized 
in North Carolina, as the register of the Grand Lodge of 
England, published in 1762, contains the following : '' 213. 
A Lodge at Wilmington, on Cape Fear river, in the Pro- 
vince of North Carolina, March 1755." In 1791 the Grand 
Lodge, after a full investigation of the claims of all the 
Lodges to priority, in the award of numbers, gave St. 
John's Lodge at Wilmington, the "No. 1," thus showing 
that it has claims to antiquity, which claims, the records 
sustain. It is to be regretted that we have not the record 
containing the names of its first members, but we know 
that they were among the most prominent of our citizens. 
For more than a century, this Lodge has been active in good 
works, and in its green old age, still flourishes with as much 
vigor as in the early days of its youth. 

Cape Fear Lodge No. 2, I. O. O. F. (Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows) was instituted by dispensation from the 
Grand Lodge of the United States, in the town of Wil- 
mington, on the 13th of May, 1842. Its first officers were : 

W. S. G. Andrews, Noble Grand. 
Valentine Hodgson, Vice Grand. 
Wiley A. Walker, Secretary. 
Alexander McRae, Treasurer. 

The Lodge was organized on the second floor of a build- 
ing owned by the late Aaron Lazarus, on the corner of 
North Water street and Ewing's sdley, and had only va- 
cated those quarters about two or three months for their 
new one, on Front street, now occupied by J. L. Boat- 
wright, Esq., when the great fire of 1843 burned every 
building on the wharf, from Ewing's alley to the depot of 
the .Wilmington & Weldon Railroad Company. 



(56 AVILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

On the 26tli of April, 1870, the Lodge commenced the 
erection of tlieir new Hall, on Third street, and on the 1st 
of January, 1871, formally occupied the same as their per- 
manent home. It numbers now 51 members, and the 
officers are : 

J. W. Hawkins, Noble Grand. 

E. E. Malpass, Vice Grand. 

A. J. Yopp, Secretary, 

W. L. Smith, Financial Secretary. 

John Maunder, Treasurer. 

The other societies are as follows : 

MASONIC. 

Wilmington Lodge No. 319. 
Concord Cliax)ter No, 1. 
Wilmington Council No. 4. 
Wilmington Commandery No. 1. 

L O. O. F. 
Orion Lodge No. 67. 

Oriana Lodge, Daughters of Eebecca, No. 3. 
Wilmington Degree No. 1. 
Campbell Encampment No. 1. 

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 

Stonewall Lodge No. 1. 
Germania Lodge No. 4. 

AMERICAN LEGION OF HONOR. 

Clarendon Council No. 67. 

KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF HONOR. 
R. H. Cowan Lodge No. 549. 

I. 0. RED MEN. 

Wyoming Tribe No. 4. 

I. O. B. B. (Hebrew). 
North State Lodge No. 222. 



i 



WILMIlSrGTOlSr, NORTH CAllOLINA. 67 

K. S. B. (Hebrew). 
Manhattan Lodge No. 158. \ 

ROYAL ARCANUM. 

Cornelius Harnett Council No. 231. 

KNIGHTS OP HONOR. 
Carolina Lodge No. 434. 

The colored associations are : 

Griblem Lodge, Mt. Nebo Lodge No. 14, Free Love Lodge, 
Golden Lyre Lodge, Good Samaritans, Love and Charity 
Benevolent Association. 

LADIES' BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. 

One of the chief, and probably the oldest of the charita- 
ble institutions of Wilmington, is the "Ladies' Benevolent 
Society." This Society was organized early in 1845, chiellj^ 
through the efforts of Mrs. M. M. Martin, Mrs. William B. 
Meares, Mrs. John Walker, Mrs. J. A. Taylor, and other 
benevolent ladies, and had for its primary object furnish- 
ing food to the destitute poor ; but it was always the desire 
of its originators to extend the usefulness of the organi- 
zation by providing a home for widows and orphans. In 
185'2 Mr. Miles Costin, a wealthy and charitable citizen, 
presented the Society with a lot in the southeastern por- 
tion of the city, upon which such a Home was to be erected. 
This made it necessary for the Society to become incorpo- 
rated, and in 1852 it received a charter as "The Ladies' 
Benevolent Society of Wilmington, North Carolina." 

About the same time Mr. P. K. Dickinson, a friend of 
every benevolent enterxDrise, donated to the Society ten 
shares of Wilmington & Weldon Railroad stock, to be 
used for the same purpose. 

The dividends from this stock were carefully saved, until 
they amounted to $1,200, when the entire amount was lost 
b}^ the failure of the bank in which it was deposited. 



68 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

During the war, the operations of the Society were en- 
tirely suspended, but in 1863 a reorganization was effected, 
and Mrs. C. Gr. Kennedy elected President. This lady has 
been successively reelected, and to her, more than to any 
one else in Wilmington, is the success of the Society due, 
almost her whole time beii>g devoted to its work. In 1872 
the lot which had been donated to the Society was sold, and 
one-half the proceeds given to the family of the donor, who 
were left much impoverished by the war. Theremaininghalf, 
together with the proceeds of the railroad stock, was used 
to purchase a more suitable place for the Home which the 
Society wished to organize, and in 1881 was established the 
"Old Ladies' House of Rest." The President, in her 
annual report for 1881 says : "The House is rather small, 
and is now occupied, almost to its full extent, by respect- 
able and w^orthy ladies, to whom, as yet, we can only give 
a comfortable shelter, not having funds for the support of 
those who are received, but hope to be sustained in our 
efforts to make it altogether what its name imports. It is 
even now a harmonious and peaceful home — not denomi- 
national, bat guarded by Christian principles." 

The Society is supported entirely by voluntary contribu- 
tions of money, wood and provisions, from benevolent citi- 
zens, and the dues of its members, which are one dollar a 
year. 

It is noticeable that of late years the contributions have 
fallen far below those of previous years, while the demands 
upon the Society for aid have increased, and it has been 
with the utmost difficulty that the calls of absolute want 
have been supplied. 

ST. GEORGE AND ST. ANDREW SOCIETY, OF WILMINGTON. 

This is a charitable society, and was instituted in 1871. 
Its object is to relieve and aid sick and distressed 
Englishmen and Scotsmen. The members of this society 
wish to alleviate all suffering amongst their fellow country- 
men. The Treasurer has expended about $1,500 in such 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 69 

charities since the society was founded. The present 
membership numbers 34. None but Englishmen, Scots- 
men, or the sons or grandsons of native English or Scots 
are admitted as resident meml^rs. 

OFFICERS : 

Alex. Sprunt, President. 

RoBT. Sweet, Vice President. 

John Colville, Treasurer. 

H. (Jr. Smallbones, Secretary. 

T. F. Wood, Physician. 

The regular meetings are held on the second Monday of 
each month, and the annual meeting on the 21st of 
March. The fees are 50 cents per month, and the life 
members are required to pay $50, which relieves them from 
all other dues. 

THE HIBERNIAN ASSOCIATION, OF WILMINGTON 

was organized in 1866 for the purpose of relieving sickness 
and distress among its members, and also to assist stran- 
gers, their fellow-countrymen, who would otherwise be a 
burthen to the community. The present membership is 
about 50. j 

The Society is not a secret organization, but purely 
benevolent, and includes in a bond of good fellowship 
neatly all of the most respectable Irishmen of our commu- 
nity: many having risen to wealth and honor and not a few 
of whom have been identified in the past with the material 
progress of our city. 

The officers are elected yearly, and are at present as 
follows : 

Frank H. Darby, President. 

James Reilly, Vice President. 

T. DoNLAN, Treasurer. 

James Corbett, Secretary. 



70 WILMINGTON. NORTH CAROLINA. 

THE SEAMAN'S FRIEND SOCIETY. 

In 1853 a number of benevolent and enterprising citizens 
organized a Society in Wilmington " to improve the social, 
moral and religious condition and cliaracter of seamen;" 
which appears at that time to have been most deplorable, 
and in recent years to have relapsed into as bad a condition. 

For several years the work prospered ; a Methodist min- 
ister. Rev. Mr, Langdon, was employed as a travelling 
agent for the Society, and collected in Wilmington and 
other parts of the country, money to pay for the j^rojDerty 
known as the "Seaman's Home," on Dock and Front 
streets, now valued at $20,000, upon which a bonded debt 
of 15,400 still remains. 

In 1856 Capt. Gilbert Potter built a Bethel on the gronnd 
adjoining the Home, on Dock street, and owned by the 
Association, at an expense of about $6,000, which he pre- 
sented to the Society, and for many years Divine service 
was regularly conducted in it to good congregations of 
sailors b}^ local ministers, and by the Society's chaplain. 

In those years, the Home was in charge of a most worthy 
man, Capt. George W. Williams, who not only wrought a 
good work among the crews of foreign and domestic vessels, 
but who kept an attractive and well-ordered house, Comforta- 
ble^and cleanly rooms, good substantial fare, an inviting, 
well-found reading-room, and by his experience of many 
years as a ship-master, his well-known character as an up- 
right, honest man, and his influence as an humble Christian, 
accomplished so much good in this shipping community, that 
the Society was esteemed a boon among our business 
people, and supported accordingly. 

In recent years, the good work of the Society has been 
greatly retarded by inefficient and mercenary superinten- 
dents, who rented the Home upon speculation for their own 
benefit as a boarding-house, and by a degree of indifference 
among the members most deplorable, when we consider 
the wide held of usefulness which is open to improvement. 



WILMINGTON", NOKTII CAKOLINA. 71 

Al though a chaplain has been annually elected by the 
Board of Trustees for several years past, and his salary 
($400) paid by the Seaman's Aid Society of New York, it 
is a lamentable fact that during the past year, the Home 
chapel has been closed week days and Sundays, because, 
as the Secretary informs me, "the chaplain could not get a 
congregation, and finally abandoned the effort;" although 
a few weeks ago, and in this Christian community, there were 
no less than 4o0 foreign and 220 American seamen in port, 
X)robably not a dozen of whom attended religious services 
on Sunday in Wilmington. This is a serious matter, and 
commends itself to our local ministers as well as to the 
members of the Seaman's Friend Society. In the mean- 
time have sprung up along our wharves, those mushroom 
curses known as sailors' boarding-houses, with attractive 
bar-rooms and' depraved women, who, with regularly paid 
runners, professing to be friends of poor Jack, entice him 
to' these dens, entertain (?) him until his last cent is ex- 
pended, and then mercilessly ship him, appropriating not 
only his available cash, but also his advance wages. So 
bold have these runners become in their nefarious work, 
that very frequently, and in my own business experience, 
an entire shi^^'s crew has been enticed to desert immedi- 
ately upon arrival; and although a State law has been 
passed for the relief of masters and owners of vessels, 
making this enticement an indictable offense, such is the 
ingenuity and duplicity of the runners, and the dej)ravity 
of the sailors themselves, that by their perjury or false 
swearing, nearly every effort to prosecute has thus far been 
unavailing. 

With reference to this great evil, Mr, Barker, a Wil- 
mington shix) agent, says: "I agree with you that this 
outrage should be stopped. Manj^ ship-masters consigned 
to me have complained of it, and I believe that united 
action by ship -masters and merchants here will prevail 
against it." 



72 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Alexander Sprunt, British Vice Consul, says : "For 
many years complaints have frequently been made to me 
by British ship-masters of desertion among their crews, 
caused by boarding-house runners, who infest the harbor, 
and I have repeatedly advised them to j)rosecute suspected 
persons, but to no purpose. The Seaman's Friend Society 
should take this matter in hand." 

Mr. E. Peschau, German Consul, says: "German ship- 
captains and ship-owners have suifered much trouble and 
loss in Wilmington by the enticement of their sailors by 
men-stealers on shore. I have tried repeatedly to bring 
some of these wretches to justice, but they have evaded 
me. I would gladly join you in an attempt to remedy 
the evil." 

Mr. R. E. Heide, Vice Consul of Norway, Sweden and 
Denmark, saj^s : "I am glad to know that you have 
brought this matter before the Exchange. My peox)le 
suffer much from these bad influences on shore. Scandi- 
navian sailors are known all the world over as law-abiding 
and capable seamen, but they are often misled here by bad 
influences, and suffer more from it than the owners do, as 
they often desert their vessels, leaving much wages due 
them. I agree with you in all you have said about the 
Seaman's Friend Society, although I am one of the Execu- 
tive Council, and I am sure much moregood could be done." 

Mr. C. P. Mebane, ship-broker, says: "Your remarks 
upon the desertion of sailors are timely. For some years 
past it has been a growing evil, encouraged by the failure 
of prosecutors and the boldness of boarding-house runners. 
It seems to me that this trouble might be stopped by the 
city authorities, or by the influence of the Seaman's Friend 
Society, which is now doing so little for the avowed object 
of its organization." 

The Society formerly numbered over one hundred paying 
members ; at present there are only twenty-five. Let the 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAKOLIN.A. 78 

good work have better encouragement. I have made refer- 
ence to it, not in a carping si^irit, but with a wholesome 
desire to revive its former efficiency and usefulness. 

Already there are indications of a decided improvement 
in its affairs : the Home having been recently renovated, 
new furniture supplied, and a Superintendent elected, who 
begins his duty w^ell, and it is to be hoped will continue 
faithful to his trust. Norwegian services are held in the 
Bethel every Sunday, conducted by the Superintendent, 
Capt. Christiansen, and it is the purpose of the newly 
elected Chaplain, Capt. W. J. Potter, to j)rosecute his work 
vigorously — in which it is to be hoped they will be sus- 
tained by all the friends of this good cause. 

The officers of the Society are as follows : 

George R. French, Sr., .President. 

George Harriss, Vice President. 

George R. French, Jr., Secretary and Treasurer. 

Capt. W. J. Potter, Chaplain. 

Trustees — Messrs. George R. French, George Harriss, 
R. E. Heide, E. T. Hancock, H. B. Filers, B. F. Mitchell, 
George R. French, Jr., E. S. Martin, Edouard Peschau, 
Roger Moore, Edward Kidder, Alexander Sprunt, F. AV. 
Kerchner, W. I. Gore, C. H. Robinson. 

Executine Committee — Messrs. E. T. Hancock, H. B. 
Eilers, R. E. Heide. 

ST. JAMES' HOME. 

"In the Spring of 1867 Dr. A. J. DeRosset, Senior 
AVardenof St. James' Parish, Wilmington, N. C, conveyed 
to the vestry of the parish, an entire city square with a two 
story double wooden house thereon, as a free gift, for 
religious and benevolent use. The active exertion of the 
parishioners, aided by the liberality of friends in different 
portions of the United States, and supplemented by a very 
successful fair, enabled the vestry to restore the residence 



74 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

which had been seriously damaged during the war of 
secession. 

In 1870, a Sunday and day school were opened in the 
building, for the gratuitous instruction of the poorer white 
children of the city. The object of the school, was the 
instruction of such children as might be reached by it in 
the more fundamental branches of an ordinary English 
education, in connection with the direct inculcation of 
moral and religious principles, with a view not merely to 
prepare its scholars for respectability and success in the 
world, but therewith also to make them good orderly citizens, 
both of the commonwealth, and of the church. 

Since its commencement, the school has been maintained 
without interruption, except for the ordinary vacations. 
So far as the'existing records of attendance supply material 
for the estimate, it is calculated that from 600 to 800 chil- 
dren of both sexes have, up to the present time, come 
under the influences, andenjoyedthe training of the school. 
Though at no time having room for any very large attend- 
ance, the numbers of the school have steadily increased 
from the first, and there are now upon the roll more than 
100 names. The growth of the school required very soon 
after its first opening, a separate school room, which was 
annexed to the main building. This has recently been 
enlarged to more than double its original size, and will, 
(thanks to the liberality of friends,' both in ISTew York and 
Wilmington,) in a few weeks, be furnished with an entire 
set of new and handsome desks of the most api^roved 
pattern. 

Teachershave been employed at fixed salaries during 
much of the time. But much or most of the work has been 
(jone— and well done— by the voluntary labor of educated 
women who have devoted themselves to good works, and 
who have had their home on the premises. Since the fall 
of 1878, the school has been in charge of members of the 
Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd, whose mother house is 



WILMINGTO^S", NORTH CAROLINA. 75 

in New York, and whose work in this connection has been 
beyond all praise. The order and discipline maintained, 
have been snch as would compare favorably with that of 
any other school in the country, and the advances in educa- 
tion have been creditable to both teachers and scholars. 

In connection with the school, a general mission work 
among the poorer classes has been zealously maintained, 
and with the best and most evident results. It has been a 
part of the work of the ladies, resident at the Home, to visit 
the poor and the afflicted, and carry with them help and 
consolation — to be instructors in all good and useful things 
from house to house, esxDecially aJmong the parents of the 
school children. A large and. varied work of this sort is 
incessantly done. 

In addition to this, orphans, or half-orphans, have from 
time to time found a home in the house. The more help- 
less and homeless sick have, in several instances, been 
brought thither and cared for, and nursed till relieved of 
their sufferings by death, and then decently buried. Inva- 
lids from places at a distance, seeking the help of the 
skilled physicians of the city, have been received and nursed. 
Penitent women have found a refuge where the religious 
influences of the household, have aided them in their 
attempts at reformation. Beside all which, the Home has 
been a nucleus for the benevolence of the Parish, and has 
given wise form and direction to its alms. Nor should it 
be forgotten that to carry out more completely its influ- 
ences for good among the children connected with its 
schools, instruction in needle work and in cooking have 
been added to its other departments of education. It is at 
this time, and in this way the only industrial school in the 
city known to the waiter. 

All this work has, of course, involved considerable 
expenditure, and at the same time required very rigid 
economy in the administration of the household. 



76 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The institution has so far been supported, 

1. By a regular subscription Ivept up by a few gentlemen 
and ladies of the parish. 

2. By the collections in its behalf of the Ladies' Associa- 
tion of the parish, 

3. By xjublic offerings on Ash Wednesday and Thanks- 
giving Day in each year. 

4. By occasional contributions. 

If to these resources a small endowment could be added 
— ^^just enough to ensure tlie permanency of the work, inde- 
pendently of the fluctuations of individual fortunes, but 
not enough to relieve the parish of the duty and privilege 
and habit of giving to the maintenance of a good object — 
a great and good work would be made secure, and the 
minds of the faithful women who have surrendered all 
worldly prospects of support, in order to do their Master's 
work among the poor, would be comforted with the assu- 
rance, that after their work is done, and they have been 
worn out in doing it, they will not be turned adrift to die, 
but will find a shelter till death, in the institution to which 
they have given their lives. 

At present there are three ladies resident at the Home, 
and constituting the Sisterhood family, all of them connected 
with the Sisterhood of the Good Shepherd, and all of them, 
together with another lady of the parish who comes daily, 
actively occupied in the work." 

I am indebted for the foregoing particulars to the Rector 
of St James' Parish, who has given mucli of an unselfish 
and devoted life in his Master's cause to this most inter- 
esting and important work of benevolence. 

NEWSPAPERS. 

If w^e may believe the historian, Williamson, the Lords 
Proprietors and the Royal Governors were extremely 
hostile to the establishment of newspapers in the colony, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 77 

during their administration of affairs. We are told that 
the Governor of Virginia would not suffer in the colony, 
under any pretense whatever, the use of a printing press, 
and Sir AVilliam Berkley, one of the Proprietors of North 
Carolina, thanked God that there was not a printing office 
in any of the Southern i3rovinces. Doubtless they knew well 
the i)ower of an unfettered press, and dreaded its influence 
upon the minds of the people; but notwithstanding their 
opposition, printing was introduced into North Carolina, 
and a paper published at Newbern, by James Davis, in 
1749, one hundred and thirty-five years ago. It was called 
the North Carolina Gazette, and printed on a small sheet, 
and issued weekly. 

The second press set up in North Carolina was at Wil- 
mington, in 1763, by Andrew Stewart, called the Cai^e 
Fear Gazette and Wilmington Advertiser. This papier 
was discontinued in 1767, but was succeeded the same year 
by the Cape Fear Mercury, published by Adam Boyd. 
He was an Englishman, but a true friend to the Colonies, 
was a member of the Committee of safety for the town of 
Wilmington, in 1775, and greatly respected. He was a 
prominent member of the Committee of Correspondence and 
was endowed with versatile talents. In 1776 he entered the 
ministry and was appointed Chaplain of the Continental 
line. 

We have no means of knowing how long the Mercury 
existed, nor have we been able to find copies of any other 
publications, prior to 1818. In that year, Mr. David Smith, 
Jr., father of Col. Wm. L. Smith, the late Mayor of 
the City, commenced the publication of the Cape Fear 
Recorder, which continued under his management until 
1835, when Mr. Archibald McLean Hooper assumed con- 
trol of its management and for a number of years it was 
the only paper published in this section of the State. Mr. 
Hooper had large scholarly attainments and was fond of 
the classics. He had the hand of a ready writer, and his 



T8 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

style was characterized by great ease and elegance, felic- 
itons in exxDression, and clothing his ideas in language 
beautiful and chaste. He was a near relative of Wm. 
Hooper the signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
the father of Johnson Hooper, so well known to fame as the 
author of "Simon Suggs," "Taking-the Census," and other 
hnmorous works. 

About the year 1834, Mr. Henry S. EUinwood came to 
Wilmington, and assumed the editorial chair of the Wil- 
mingtoii Advertiser, a paper then published in the town. 
He was an educated gentleman, and fitted for the duties of 
a journalist. He courted the muses with considerable 
success, and many of his jiieces, which are still in 
existence, give ample evidence of belles lettres culture, wit 
and fancy. His connection with the paper was, however, 
very brief, as he died suddenly a short time after taking 
charge. After his death the paper was purchased by Mr. 
Joshua Cochrane, of Fayetteville, and conducted by him 
until the Summer of 1836, when he died, and Mr. F. C. 
Hill became the Editor and Proprietor, and continued its 
publication until about the year 1842, when it ceased to 
exist. 

Cotemporary with the Advertiser ^ was the People's 
Press, a paper published by P. W. Fanning and Thomas 
Loring, the latter being the editor in chief, which position 
he held for some time, when he disposed of his interest and 
purchased the Standard, the organ of the Democratic party 
of the State, issued at Raleigh, and removed to that city, 
assuming control of its management, he brought to the 
discharge of his duties great energy, perseverance, marked 
ability and a thorough familiarity with political history. 
He was a man of sanguine temperament and a w\arm parti- 
san, and in the excitement of controversy, often indulged 
in expressions towards his i3olitical opponents, which, in 
his calmer moments, his judgment condemned. He wielded 
a political influence, at one time, second to but few men in 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAKOLINA. 79 

the State, and was an acknowledged leader of his party, 
but differing from them in 1842, in regard to their course 
towards the Banks of the State, he retired from the posi- 
tion he held, rather than continue to hold it at the sacrifice 
of his independence. Returning to Wilmington, he 
established the Tri- Weekly Commercial, which he con- 
ducted for a number of years, until failing health compelled 
its discontinuance. 

The Wilmington Chronicle was established about the 
year 1838, by Asa A. Brown. It was an exponent of the 
principles of the Whig party, and advanced them with 
great zeal and ability. Mr. Brown was a capable editor, a 
good writer and a man of more than ordinary abilit\^ In 
1851, he disposed of the paper to Talcott Burr, Jr., who 
changed its name to the Wilmington Herald. 

Under his management, the Herald became one of the 
leading papers ^n the State, and but for his untimely 
death in 1858, would have taken rank with any in the 
South. 

Mr. Burr' s peculiar characteristics as a writer, were his 
ready wit and sparkling humor, overlaying a deep vein of 
strong, impulsive feeling. Quick, vivid and Hashing, never 
missing its point, yet never striking to wound, abounding 
in gay and pleasant fancies, and alwaj^s warm and genial 
as the Summer air, it touched the commonest topic of every 
day life, and imbued it with new and charming attractive- 
ness. He was struck down by the shaft of the great 
destroyer, in the prime of life, and in the midst of an active, 
useful and honorable career. 

After his death, his brothers, C. E. and R. Burr, carried 
on the paper for a year or two, when it passed into the 
hands of A. M. Waddell, and ceased to exist on the break- 
ing out of the war. 

In the year 1844, Alfred L. Price and David Fulton, 
under the firm name of Fulton & Price, issued the first 
number of the Wilmington Journal, a paper destined to 



80 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

exercise a controllinc? influence for many years npon the 
political questions of the day. The editorial department 
was under the control of Mr. Fulton, and very ably con- 
ducted until his death, which occurred a year or two after 
the establishment of the pax3er, when his brother, James 
Fulton, took charge of its management. 

James Fulton was no ordinary man. He possessed a 
vigorous intellect and a clear judgment, was quick at 
repartee, and prompt to take advantage of any point 
exposed by an adversary, in tlie controversies incident to 
his position, but was always courteous, and rarely indulged 
in personalities. He wrote with great ease, and liis style 
was chaste, graceful and vigorous. He had humor, too, 
and it bubbled up continually, not that keen, pungent wit 
that stings and irritates, but that which provokes merri- 
ment by droll fancies and quaint illustrations. He had a 
remarkable memory and read much, and remembered what 
he read, and could utilize it effectively. 

The Journal was a power in the State while he controlled 
it. In this section, particularly, its influence was un- 
bounded. Mr. Fulton died in the early part of the year 
1866, and was succeeded by Major J. A. Engelhard, as 
editor, who sustained the high reputation the paper had 
acquired. Upon the retirement of Mr. Alfred L. Price, 
Col. Wm. L. Saunders became connected with the paper, 
the firm being Engelhard & Saunders, an intellectual com- 
bination in journalism seldom surpassed. During the 
troublous times, after the close of the war, its utterances 
were manly, outspoken and fearless in condemnation of 
measures regarded as opi^ressive to our people. It prac- 
tised no temporizing policy, but boldly uttered what the 
sincerity of its convictions might promjDt it to declare. It 
continued thus until 1878, when adverse circumstances 
caused its suspension. It is now published as a weekly 
paper, the name, Wilmington Journal., being retained by 
Josh T. James, Editor and Proprietor. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLIN.A. 81 

But few copies of the earlier papers published in Wil- 
mington, are now in existence, of some, not a copy can be 
found ; hence there may be, and doubtless are, omissions 
in the loresent list, but it is believed to be nearly accurate, 
at least approximately so. No mention is made of papers 
whose existence was but temjjorary. 

There are now in Wilmington the following publica- 
tions : 

The Morning Star, daily, by W. H. Bernard, established 
September, 1867, and the Weekly Star, established in 
1868. 

The Daily Review, established by James & Price, in 
October, 1875, now conducted by Josh T. James. 

The Star and the Review are the only daily papers 
published in the City, the former, a morning paper, and 
the latter issued in the evening. 

The Wilmington Post, established in 1866, weekly. 

The North Carolina Presbyterian, weekly, was first 
established in Fayetteville, January 1, 1858, the Rev. Geo. 
McNeill, and the late Bartholomew Fuller, being the 
editors. It was removed to Wilmington in November, 
1874, John McLaurin being the editor and proprietor. 

The Africo- American Presbyter ioM, published in the 
interest of the colored members of that denomination, by 
Rev. D. J. Saunders, a colored man of remarkable attain- 
ments. 

The North Carolina Medical Journal, by Dr. Thomas 
F. Wood, was established January, 1878. It is a monthly 
publication, ably edited, and of great value to the pro- 
fession. 

A comparison between the papers of the day and of the 
past, will show the marvelous advance that has been made 
in science and in art. Then, months were required for the 
transmission of news, political or commercial; now, the 
lightnings flash has been made subservient to the wants 
or caiDrices of man, and he can kitow the same day what is 



82 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

transpiring in countries thousands of miles distant. Do 
we realize the advantages that we of this century enjoy, 
and are we any better, as a people, than were our ances- 
tors, who were content with a weekly newspaper, "no 
bigger than a man's hand," while we have mammoth dailies 
by the hundreds? 

COMMISSIONERS OF NAVIGATION AND PILOTAGE. 

The Commissioners of Navigation and Pilot;age for the 
Cape Fear River and Bars, were formerly elected by the 
qualified voters of the city of Wilmington, but in 1870 the 
Legislature of the State passed an act authorizing and re- 
quiring the Mayor and Aldermen of the city of Wilming- 
ton to appoint every year five persons, and the Mayor and 
Commissioners of the town of Smithville two persons, to 
serve as Commissioners of Navigation and Pilotage for the 
Cape Fear River and Bars, and providing that the seven 
persons so appointed should have power to do and perform 
all acts theretofore authorized by law to be done by the 
Board of Commissioners of Navigation and Pilotage. The 
Commissioners have authority in all matters that may con- 
cern the navigation of the waters from seven miles above 
Negrohead Point downwards, and out of the bar ; and 
with respect to throwing rubbish in the river at the 
city of Wilmington, and in the construction of wharves 
have concurrent jurisdiction witli the Mayor and Aldermen 
of the city. 

The Commissioners are required to ajDpoint a Harbor 
Master, and prescribe the duties of his office, to make such 
rules and regulations for the Port of Wilmington, and 
respecting the duties of pilots, as they may deem most ad- 
visable, and to impose reasonable fines, forfeitures and 
penalties for the purpose of enforcing such rules and regu- 
lations. Tliey are required to provide for the examination 
by nautical men, of aijprentices who have served three 
years, and who desire to become pilots, and to issue com- 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAllOLINA. 88 

missions or branches to such as are found qualitied to per- 
form the duties of pilots, provided that there shall not be 
at any one time more than sixty-five river and bar pilots 
in commission. Three classes of licenses are required to 
be issued — one to pilot vessels whose draught of water does 
not exceed nine feet, one to pilot vessels whose draught 
does not exceed twelve feet, and one unlimited, or full 
license, to pilot vessels of any draught of water. 

Every person, before he obtains a branch to become a 
pilot, must give bond, with two sufficient sureties in the 
sum of $500, payable to the State of North Carolina, for 
the faithful discharge of his duties. 

The number of pilots for the river and bars must not at 
any one time be reduced below forty. 

The Commissioners are authorized to fix the rates of 
pilotage, provided the}^ do not reduce them below the rates 
established in 1869. 

Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels of sixty tons bur- 
then and over. 

The present number of pilots (sixty-five) is about equally 
divided between the bars and river. 

The Commissioners are required to regulate the number 
of apiDrentices, provided there shall not be less than twenty. 
During and since the war, it has been impossible to comply 
with this provision of the law, there having been at no time 
since the war as many as twenty to serve, and now there 
are not more than three or four. 

A Harbor Master's fee, when no service is performed, is 
not compulsory ; but, by an order of the Commissioners, 
every vessel whose captain voluntarily pays the Harbor 
Master three dollars, on her arrival, is entitled to his services 
at all times, while the vessel is in port, without further 
charge. 

If this fee is refused, and the vessel so refusing requires 
the Harbor Master's services, he is entitled to, and can col- 
lect, 15 for the first visit, and 12.50 for every subsequent 
visit. 



84 WILMINGTON-, NORTH CAROLINA, 

The present Board is composed of James H. Chadbourn, 
Chairman ; Donald MacRae, David Gr. Worth, H. B. Eilers, 
and James Sprunt, of Wilmington, and G. F. Crapon and 
Edward Daniels, of Smithville. Mr. Chadbourn has served 
upon the Board for fifteen years, for twelve of which, he has 
acted with great acceptability as Chairman. 

During his administration, the character of the pilots has 
greatly imj)roved, and the present body will compare most 
favorably with any of the profession in other j)orts. In- 
stances of drunkenness, neglect or incapacity, are very 
rare, and although the difficult navigation of our river has 
of late been more perjjlexing, in consequence of the changes 
being wrought by the engineers, there has been no serious 
damage sustained by any vessel for many years, while in 
charge of a Wilmington pilot. 

Rules and RegiClations of the Port of Wilmington^ lie- 
vised and Adopted 'by the Board of Commissioners of 
Namgation and Pilotage^ on September iWi, 1868, for 
the Government of the Port of Wilmington^ River and 
Bars of the Cape Fear, to go into effect immediately. 

Ordered, That hereafter all vessels arriving in this Port, 
the Master, Agent or Consignee of which shall voluntarily 
pay to the Harbor Master, the sum of Three Dollars, they 
may command, at all times, the services of said Harbor 
Master, as prescribed by the Port Regulations, without 
further charge, while the vessel shall remain in Port ; but 
where such Master, Agent, or Consignee, shall refuse to 
pay said amount of Three Dollars, the following fees are 
fixed, and^shall be collected as provided in Revised Code, 
chapter 85, paragraph 3, page 461 : When called upon to 
perform any duty required by law or Court Regulations — 
for the first visit or performance of duty, Five Dollars, and 
for each subsequent visit to the same vessel, Two Dollars 
and Fifty Qewts.— Adopted Nommler lltJi, 1869. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 85 

1. All ballast, coal, or other substance calculated to in- 
jure the River, shall be safely placed not less than four feet 
from the caj) of the wharf ; and in delivering or landing, 
must be done under such precautions as to prevent the 
escape of any portion into the River, under the penalty of 
Fifty Dollars. No ballast or coal shall be discharged from 
any vessel, while in this Port, after dark or before sunrise, 
under a penalty of One Hundred Dollars for each and 
every offence, to be paid by the Captain. And no trash or 
substance calculated in any manner to injure the naviga- 
tion, shall be thrown into the River, under a penalty of 
Ten Dollars, for each and every offence, to be paid by the 
party offending. 

2. All vessels crossing the Bars, either in or out, or navi- 
gating the Rivers from or to the sea, shall be required to 
pay full pilotage to the Pilot offering his services, whether 
such craft be in tow or otherwise— and that any Pilot neg- 
lecting or detaining a vessel under his charge unnecessa- 
ril}^, shall suffer the severest penalty of the law. Ordered 
further, That any person without the authority of this 
Board, attempting to pilot a vessel, or charging for such 
service, shall pay a penalty of Forty Dollars. 

3. Any vessel hoisting her colors for a Pilot, shall be 
compelled to pay the Pilot offering his services full pilotage, 
whether such Pilot be employed or not. 

4. When no Pilot is in attendance, any person may con- 
duct into port any vessel in danger from stress of weather 
or in a leaky condition ; but if any person not duly quali- 
fied or licensed, shall presume to act as Pilot under any 
other circumstances, he shall forfeit and pay Forty Dollars. 

5. No Master of a vessel having a Branch, or a Mate 
with a Branch, shall be compelled to take a Pilot, said 
Master or Mate first having a permit from this Board for 
leave of absence. 

6. Every Master of a vessel who shall detain a Pilot after 
the time appointed, so that he cannot proceed to sea, though 



86 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

wind and water should permit, shall j)ay such Pilot Three 
Dollars per day during the time of his actual detention ; 
and if any vessel, which shall be boarded by a Pilot, with- 
out or within any of the inlets, shall, by violence of the 
weather or otherwise, be driven to sea, the Master or owner 
of such vessel shall allow and pay the Pilot Three Dollars 
per day for every day he shall be on board, besides the fee 
of pilotage. 

7. All vessels at anchor, or under way, within the bars 
of Cajpe Fear River, at night, shall exhibit a light in some 
conspicuous place, at least ten feet above the deck, so as to 
be seen by vessels or steamboats i3assing up or down the 
River, under a penalty of One Hundred Dollars for each 
and every neglect, and shall also be liable for all damage or 
the amount of injury sustained by any vessel or boat 
coming in contact, to be recovered for the benefit of the 
injured party. And it shall be the duty of the Pilots to 
notify the Master of each vessel coming over the bar of the 
existence of this order. 

8. No vessel shall anchor in the River, or extend her 
fasts as to interrupt the navigation of said River, or the 
passage of the Ferry Boats to and from the usual place of 
landing on either side of the River, under the Penalty of 
Fifty Dollars for each and every offence, after notice from 
the Harbor Master. 

9. No vessel shall extend her hull, bowsprit, yards, rig- 
ging or fasts, so as to interrupt the passage into or out of 
the public Docks, under the penalty of Five Dollars for 
each and every hour said offence shall continue, after notice 
from the Harbor Master. 

10. No vessel that has discharged, or that is not engaged 
in discharging or taking on board a cargo, shall keep her 
place at any wharf, when, for the convenience of dis- 
charging or taking on board a cargo, said place may be 
required by any other vessel, under the penalty of Fifty 
Dollars for each and every day such offence shall continue. 



WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 87 

11. No vessel shall careen for tlie purpose of burning, 
cleaning or repairing, at any wharf within the limits of 
Wilmington, except at regular ship-yards, under a penalty 
of One Hundred Dollars for each and every offence. 

V2. No Master or Commander of a vessel shall disobey 
or neglect such orders and directions as may be given by 
the Harbor Master, in times of gales of wind, relating to 
the safety of vessels in the harbor, under the j^enalty of 
One Hundred Dollars for each and every offence, to bex:)aid 
by the Master or Commander of said vessel. 

IB. No vessel having on board grain, or articles evidently 
in a state of putrefaction, or offensive, shall haul to or lay 
at any wharf, but shall anchor in the middle of the Kiver 
until the order of the Board shall be known, under the 
penalty of One Hundred Dollars for each and every hour 
said offence shall continue, after notice from the Harbor 
Master. Nor shall any vessel discharge offensive bilge 
water within the limits of the City of Wilmington, under 
a penalty of Fifty Dollars. 

14. No vessel shall lay at any wharf with her yards and 
booms otherwise trimmed than as the Harbor Master shall 
direct, under the penalty of Fifty Dollars, for each and 
every day said offence shall continue, to be paid by the 
Master or Commander of said vessel. 

15. No vessel, whether loaded or empty, shall lay at 
anchor in the River opposite the City, between Mulberry 
and Castle Streets, for more than twenty-four hours at one 
time, under a penalty of Fifty Dollars for each and every 
day said offence shall continue, after notice from the 
Harbor Master. 

16. If a Branch Pilot shall go off to any vessel bound in, 
and offer to pilot her over the Bar, the Master or Comman- 
der of such vessel, if he refuses to take such Pilot (except 
lawfully exempt), shall pay such Pilot the lawful pilotage. 

17. When any Pilot shall see any vessel on the coast, 
having a signal for a Pilot, or shall hear a gun of distress 



88 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

fire off the coast, and shall neglect or refuse to go to the 
assistance of such vessel, such Pilot shall forfeit and pay 
One Hundred Dollars— one-half to the informer, the other 
half to the Master ; unless such Pilot is actually in charge 
of another vessel. 

18. The Board of Commissioners may designate the place 
whereat, within the waters under their control, may be 
cast and thrown ballast, trash, stones and such like matter : 
and if any j^erson shall cast or throw from any vessel into 
said waters, any such substances, likely to be injurious to the 
navigation, he shall forfeit and pay Two Hundred Dollars, 
And if any Pilot shall knowingly suffer such unlawful act 
to be done, and shall not, within ten days thereafter, give 
information to some one of this Board, he shall be subject 
to the lawful punishment. 

19. Authority is vested in the Commissioners to hear and 
determine all matters of dispute between Pilots and Mas- 
ters of vessels, or between the Pilots themselves, resi^ecting 
the pilotage of vessels — appeal in certain cases to be 
allowed. 

20. On the arrival of any vessel at this port, it shall be 
the duty of the Harbor Master to go on board and deliver 
to the Captain or officer in charge of such vessel, the Port 
Regulations, under a penalty of Ten Dollars. 

21. Any Pilot running a vessel ashore, by which means 
any injury or detention is sustained by such vessel, shall 
report the same without delay to the Chairman of this 
Board. 

22. No vessel under sixty tons shall be compelled to take 
a Pilot or pay pilotage, unless a signal for a Pilot shall be 
made. 

23. Any Pilot intending to absent himself from his sta- 
tion for over twenty-four hours, shall communicate his 
intention to the Chairman, who may grant a permit, and 
he shall likewise make known his return, under a penalty 
of Fifty Dollars for such neglect. 



WIL3IINGT0N, NORTH CAKOLINA. 89 

24. Should any liiilk, raft, flat, or other obstructive sub- 
stance become sunken, from any cause, in the River, tlie 
same shall be immediately removed, under a penalty of 
Five Dollars for each and every day such nuisance shall 
remain, after notice from the Harbor Master, to be paid by 
the i^arties interested or concerned ; and in case exertions 
are not immediately made for the removal aforesaid, the 
Commissioners may exercise the discretion of using other 
means of abating the nuisance, even to the confiscation or 
condemnation of such obstructions. 

25. The Harbor Master shall have power to regulate all 
fires which are burning or kindled on Rafts, Decks, or 
Flat Boats, or Lighters, and any owner or agent of the 
owner, refusing to obey the orders of the Harbor Master, 
shall be liable to a fine of Fifty Dollars for every violation. 

26. It shall be the duty of the Harbor Master to see that 
all raft frames be taken out of the water by persons land- 
ing wood or lumber, audit shall be the duty of every Agent 
or Inspector of said rafts to have the same done, when so 
ordered, or at all times, under a penalty of Fifty Dollars. 

27. Any person encumbering either of the public docks 
with logs, dilapidated hulks, or other trash or nuisance, 
shall forfeit and pay a fine of Five Dollars, if not removed 
immediately upon notice from the Harbor Master, and Five 
Dollars for every additional day the nuisance remains. 
And when the owner cannot conveniently be found, the 
Harbor Master shall take the most speedy method to clear 
the dock. 

28. The Bar Pilots shall be divided into classes of not 
less than four each, whose dut}'' it shall be by turns, to 
ascertain the depth of water at the several navigable points, 
and to report to this Board by the first regular meeting in 
each month, being Tuesday — penalty for neglect. Ten 
Dollars. 

29. In all violations of these Ordinances, wherein no for- 
feiture is specified, a penalty not exceeding Fifty Dollars 
may be imposed, according to the aggravation of the case. 



90 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

30. During the recess of tlie Board, the Chairman shall 
be empowered to try and determine all cases of delinquency 
occurring, and an appeal from his decision to this Board 
being allowed ; and all matters connected with the naviga- 
tion and regulations of the Port, during the recess of the 
Board, shall be under his immediate supervision and 
control. 

31. No apprentice is allowed to pilot any vessel drawing 
over six feet of water, without permission from the Chair- 
man of this Board. 

32. Any Pilot, who, after having been notified for the 
purpose, shall fail to be on board any vessel at the time set 
for sailing, shall forfeit and pay the Captain Ten Dollars 
for each day's delay (unless at the time he shall have per- 
sonal charge of some other vessel), and the further sum of 
one day's expense of such vessel. Pilots, however, may 
require advance pay for pilotage. 

33. Pilots navigating vessels into Port, shall be entitled, 
exclusively, to navigate such vessels out of Port, provided 
a Pilot be in attendance when a vessel is ready to sail ; 
otherwise the Captain may^ employ any other suitable 
Pilot. Any Pilot or other person navigating a vessel con- 
trary to the meaning of this regulation, shall forfeit and 
pay the injured Pilot Forty Dollars. 

34. Neglect to repair dilapidated wharves shall subject 
the owners or parties interested, after having been duly 
notified, to a fine of Five Dollars, for each and every day's 
neglect to make such repairs. 

35. All flats, lighters, or other boats or vessels, employed 
within the limits of the City of Wilmington, x^roj^elled 
wholly or in part by gigs or poles, are hereby prohibited 
from using ui)on the ends of said gigs or poles, any iron or 
other metal points so sharpened as to make indentation into 
wood. And any vessel, steamer or package of goods, re- 
ceiving damage from the use of said gigs or poles, the 
owners or agent of the owners of the fiat or lighter, shall 



WILMIKGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 91 

be liable for the full amount of damage arising therefrom. 
And any person or persons employed as crew of said fiat 
or lighter, who shall violate this Ordinance, shall be fined 
not less than Five Dollars for each and every offence. 

36. Any person casting loose or adrift, any Flat, Raft or 
Raft of Turpentine, or any Boat or Vessel, without the 
consent of the Harbor Master, had and obtained, shall be 
punished by a fine of Ten Dollars for each and every 
offence. One-half of the said fine shall, when collected, 
be paid to the i^erson or persons giving information to the 
Harbor Master. 

37. From and after this date, any person piling wood, or 
any other material or merchandise, in such manner as to 
prevent or obstruct the fastening of vessels at any piling or 
ringbolt, placed upon any wharf for the purpose of securing 
any vessel, shall forfeit Five Dollars for each and every 
hour said obstruction shall remain, after notice from the 
Harbor Master; said fines to be collected in the same 
manner as other fines imposed by this Board. 

All Ordinances, Rules or Regulations, conflicting with 
those above specified, are hereby repealed. 

JAMES H. CHADBOURN, Chairman. 
Jos. Price, Harbor Master. 



Ordered hy the Board of Commissioners of Namgation 
and Pilotage : 

That hereafter no 'Pilot shall leave a vessel on the River 
without the consent of the Master, and when any deten- 
tion shall occur, by fault of the Master of any vessel, the 
Pilot shall be entitled to Three Dollars per day for every 
day so detained. 

When any vessel lying outside of the Rip, or at other 
exposed points, shall set her colors for a Pilot, the regular 
Pilot shall promptly answer her signal, or in his absence, 
some other Pilot, who has a branch entitling him to take 
charge of such a vessel, shall proceed to her with all 



92 



WILMINGTOISr, NORTH CAROLINA. 



possible dispatch, and for such service shall receive Five 
Dollars per day, until discharged by the Master. 

Services rendered by any other than the regular Pilot, 
in answer to a signal, shall not deprive the regular Pilot of 
his right to carry the vessel to sea when slie is ready. 

Any Pilot failing to carry out this order, shall be liable 
to such fine as the Board of Commissioners, after invest! 
gating the cause, may impose. 

JAS. H. CHADBOURN, Chairman. 

February 17th, 1874. 



Rates of Pilotage for the Cape Fear Bars and li'wers, Established on 

the Id day of August, 1870, in Accordance ivith the Existing Acts of 

the Legislature of North Carolina, to go into Operation on Augus 

10th, 1870. 

BARS : 



wiug G f 


eet 


and uu 

11 1 
11 1 
1 1 1 
11 1 
11 1 
11 1 

11 1 
11 1 
11 1 
11 1 
11 1 
11 1 
11 1 
1 1 1 
11 1 
li 1 
11 1 


der 61 fe 
7 ' 

' 71 ' 
8 

' 8^ ' 

' 9 

' 91 ' 

' 10 ' 

' 101 ' 

' 11 

' 111 ' 

' 12 

' 121 ' 

' 13 ' 

' 132^ ' 

' 14 ' 
' 14} ' 
' 15 
' 151 ' 
' 16 • 
' 161 ' 
' 17 ' 
' 171 ' 
' 18 


et $ 9 00 

' 9 75 


7 


' 10 75 


7i 


' 11 50 


8 


' 12 00 


8.1 


' VA 75 


" 9 


' - 13 50 


9i 


' 14 50 


10 


' 15 25 


10| 


' 17 00 


11 


' 18 50 


11.^ 


' 20 50 


" 12 


' 22 50 


12-^ 


' 25 50 


13 


' 28 50 


13.?r 


' 31 00 


14 


' 34 00 


lU 


' 38 00 


15 


' ... 42 00 


151 


' 45 00 


16 


' 50 00 


161 


' 55 00 


17 


' 60 00 


171 


' G5 00 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 



93 



EIVER. 



From 

Smithville 

to 

Wilmington, 

and 

vice versa. 



From Five 
Fathom Hole 

to 
Wilmington 

and 
vice versa. 



r 6 J 


reet 


and 


und 


er 6J feet 


$ 9 50 


$ 7 00 


H 


(1 


It 


•' 


7 




10 50 


8 00 


7 


u 


11 


u 


7i 




12 00 


9 00 


n 


u 


1. 


11 


8 




12 50 


9 75 


8 


u 


" 


11 


8i 




13 00 


10 25 


8^ 


u 


ti 


" 


9 




13 50 


10 75 


9 


11 


11 


" 


9J 




14 00 


11 25 


9j 


" 


" 


11 


10 




15 00 


12 25 


10 


ii 


" 


11 


10<V 




16 00 


13 25 


lOJ 


" 


" 


11 


11 




18 00 


14 50 


11 


" 


11 


" 


lU 




19 75 


15 75 


lU 


11 


11 


1 1 


12 




22 00 


16 75 


12 


1 1 


11 


11 


12J 




24 00 


17 50 


12i 


11 


11 


11 


13 




26 50 


20 00 


13 


11 


11 


11 


13^ 




29 00 


22 25 


13J 


1 1 


11 


t( 


14 




32 00 


24 25 


14 


It 


" 


11 


Ul 




35 00 


26 25 


Ui 


11 


11 


11 


15 




40 00 


28 25 


15 


11 


11 


11 


151 




44 00 


30 00 



From Smithville to Brunswick, or from Brunswick to Wilmington, 
or vice versa, shall be one- half the Pilotage from Smithville to Wil- 
mington. From Smithville to Five Fathom Hole, from Five Fathom 
Hole to B/unswick, from Brunswick to Campbell's Island, from 
Campbell's Island to Wilmington, or vice versa one-fourth of the Pilot- 
age from Smithville to Wilmington: Provided, That vessels of 60 
tons burthen, owned by the citizens of this State, shall not be required 

to take a Pilot. 

By order, JOS. PRICE, Clerk. 

August 10, 1870. 

PORT WARDENS. 

An Act of the General Assembly passed in 1802, author- 
ized, emiDowered and directed the Commissioners of Navi- 
gation to appoint three fit persons to be Wardens of the 
Port, for the Port of Wilmington. And, in case of the 
death, refusal to act, or resignation of any Port Wardens 
so appointed, it is the duty of the Commissioners of Navi- 
gation, together with such Port Warden, or Wardens, as 



94 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

shall be then living and acting, to elect 'some other person 
or iDersons in the X)lace of the one so dying or refusing 
to act. 

The act lorescribes the duty of the Port Wardens sub- 
stantially as follows : 

On request made by the master or owner of any vessel 
arriving in port, or stranded within the bounds thereof, to 
survey and make report of the situation and condition of 
her, and the causes thereof, and whether she should 
be repaired or condemned. To inspect the condition 
of vessels which may arrive in distress, or may have 
suffered by gales of wind at sea. The condition and 
situation of goods, wares and merchandise, which may 
arrive in said vessels, or may have received damage 
at sea, and to report thereon and the probable causes 
thereof. To inspect the stowage of the cargoes of 
vessels arriving in port, having received damage at sea, 
before the same shall be discharged. To make surveys of 
goods, wares and merchandise, and the cargoes of damaged 
vessels, and to make and report estimates of the amount of 
damage sustained. To make and report (if required) 
surveys of vessels outward bound, and to report whether 
they are seaworthy or not, and fit for the voyage intended. 
All goods that are sold by reason of their having received 
damage, which shall have been surveyed or inspected by 
the Port Wardens, shall be sold under their inspection 
and direction. 

The surveys and reports of the Port Wardens are consid- 
ered as authentic documents, and as such, received as 
evidence in courts of law. 

The present Wardens are Gfeorge Harriss, B. G. Bates 
and R. G. Ross ; and judging from the Act of General 
Assembly ratified in 1802, creating this ofiice, it would 
appear that the appointments are for life. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 95 

PORT CHARGES AND FACILITIES. 

Wilmington is proverbially a cheap port. Owing to its 
distance (about thirty miles) from the sea, the principal 
expenses to vessels are towing when required, and pilotage, 
which is compulsory. The service of towage is efficiently 
rendered by the steam tugs Blanche, Italian, Passi^ort, 
Alplia, Tioga and William Nyce, at the following rates; 

Towage from sea to sea, 35 cents per ton. 

" Smithville and to sea, 30 " " " 

" '• Wilmington " " 25 " " " 

There are no Harbor dues, except the Harbor Master's 
fee of $3.00 on each vessel, wdiich is not compulsory, but 
optional with the vessel, and which is recommended to be 
paid in all instances, as a retainer in case of need, — the 
Harbor Master being empowered to charge a vessel, other- 
wise, for services rendered, $5.00 for the first visit, and 
$2.50 for each subsequent one. There are over three miles 
of river front, about half of which affords wharf accommo- 
dation, free of charge to vessels, which are promptly 
moored on arrival, by the Harbor Master. 

The present depth of water in the harbor is 10 to 45 feet, 
but below Wilmington, the river (now being dredged and 
deepened) on ordinary tides is only 14^ feet, so that vessels 
requiring more water, must lighter the remainder of the 
cargo to Smithville (near the bar) at a cost of, say, 8 to 12 
cents per barrel rosin, 10 to 15 cents per cask spirits tur- 
pentine, 30 to 50 cents per bale cotton. 

The charges for stowing cargoes are lower than in any 
other port ; say,— rosin 3 cents, tar 4 cents, spirits turpen- 
tine 6 cents, cotton 40 to 50 cents, porting and stowing 
lumber 50 cents. Provisions and other ship stores are 
about the same as in other Atlantic j)orts. 

Two years ago an attemxjt was made to establish a line 
of Steamers from Wilmington to Liverpool, and the 
Steamer Barnesmore was chartered as an experiment, but 



96 WILMIXGTOjN^, ]\^0KTII CAROLINA. 

it was found tbat the depth of water was not sufficient to 
encourage further business. 

The Captain of this Steamer, however, wrote, upon his 
departure for Liverpool, a very hopeful letter addressed to 
Mr. A. H. Van Bokkelen, President of the Chamber of 
Commerce, of Wilmington, which was as follows, and 
which may serve as a guide, should further efforts be made 
for direct steam communication: 

"Off Smitiiville, N. C, October 6th, 1881. 
Hon. a. H. Van Bokkelen, 

President Chamber of Commerce, Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir : — 

Agreeably to your request, I beg herewith to give you 
my opinion and experience of the ai)proaches and port of 
Wilmington. The only danger to be apprehended in 
approaching Wilmington bar is the Frying Pan Shoal, 
which is well marked by buoys on each side, and the Light 
Ship at the extreme end ; but as ships bound to the south- 
ern ports endeavor to sight the Light Ship, the risk and 
danger is equally great to them as if they were bound to 
Wilmington- Any remarks therefore, on this head, would 
be superfluous, as it is abundantly shown they can have all 
the tonnage they require at any southern port ; and I am 
quite sure the approaches would not be considered by 
owners desirous of sending their steamers to this port, 
any more than to Charleston or Savannah. 

The bar is straight, and well marked for crossing by day 
or night— and we passed in and out with perfect ease and 
safety. 

Outward-bound, our draught was— forward, 13 feet, 
4 inches ; aft, 14 feet, 9 inches. 

We found not less than 18 feet of water on the bar — 
sufficient for a much larger steamer than the Barnesmore 
to pass safely. 

I was prepared to find Cape Fear River shallow ; but I 
also exjDected to find the navigation intricate and trouble- 
some, and in this I was agreeably disa]ppointed, for except- 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 97 

ing the Horse Shoe Bend, there is not a sharp turn in the 
river ; and I do not think any steamer that steered fairly 
well would have any difficulty in passing this. Indeed, 
navigating the Danube, compared with the Cape Fear 
River, is passing the Horse Shoe Bend all the time. 

The shallowness of the water, however, is a great diffi- 
culty in the way of getting steamers to run regularly to 
this port. There are comparatively few steamers that can 
load a cargo large enough to pay them to cross the Atlantic 
on a draught of 14^ feet. If, however, the river was 
dredged to a minimum depth, at ordinary tides, of 16 feet, 
you could get as many stean\ers as you wanted to load a 
cargo of cotton at this draught ; and I have no doubt Wil- 
mington would soon become one of the first cotton i)orts on 
the coast. 

The dock and wharf accommodations are good, the cotton 
presses as powerful as any in the United States, and attach- 
ed to them are warehouses capable of storing several 
thousand bales of cotton, where they are perfectly shel- 
tered from the weather, and the risk of fire considerably 
lessened by the strict rules for the prevention of accidents 
of this nature being rigidly carried out. 

The charges for compressing and stowing are about the 
same as in other U. S. cotton ports. 

There is a fee of $3.00 to the Harbor Master ; but except 
this, ships are free of all charges whatever ; there are 
neither harbor nor wharf dues to pay. The pilotage is 
comparatively light, and referring to the men who piloted 
my steamer to and from Wilmington, I found them cau- 
tious and skillful. Provisions, although not as good as in 
most American ports, are moderate in price— and finall}-, 
comparing Wilmington with any other cotton-shipping 
port, it is a very cheap i3lace. 

The facilities for loading are good. We have been only 
nine days in taking in 3,458 bales of cotton, 673 barrels of 
spirits turpentine and 550 barrels of rosin ; and on days 



98 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

when cotton was coming forward briskly, we have received 
from the Champion Press alone, upwards of 600 bales. 

Another important matter which will be taken into con- 
sideration when sending ships in this direction: The State 
has passed a law which provides for the arrest and impris- 
onment of persons enticing men away from their ships, and 
the authorities are willing and prompt in locking up 
deserters when properly certified by the British Consul; 
and I have no doubt this will have the effect of checking, 
and ultimately ending— at least in North Carolina — the 
endless expense and trouble, owners and shipmasters have 
hitherto been subject to, throughout America, in conse- 
quence of this evil. Personally, I owe the authorities here 
my best thanks for the manner in which they helped me in 
a matter of this kind. 

I wish to acknowledge with gratefulness the kind recep- 
tion that has been extended me by your most worthy 
fellow-merchants, whom I find really anxious to encourage 
any movement which tends to the welfare and progress of 
the place. 

Of the zeal and energy of Messrs. Alex. Sprunt & Son, in 
despatching the Barnesmore^ there is no question ; and I 
am satisfied that President Murchison and Manager Clark, 
of the Central Railway, are quite ready to aid, in the most 
substantial manner, toward establishing a regular steam 
service from this port. 

I mention these gentlemen because there is no mistaking 
their cordiality wdth reference to this subject. But let the 
river dredging be pushed on vigorously, otherwise there is 
small scope for individual enterprise and energy. In con- 
clusion, I wish to acknowledge the great attention and 
courtesy of Collector Canaday and Captain Gabrielson, 
and to say I shall not soon forget them or their kindly 
offices. I remain, dear sir. 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. TRENERY, 
Captain of S. 8. Barnesmorey 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 99 

CUSTOM HOUSE RETURNS. 

The following report of the Collector of Customs for the 
Port of AVilmington, shows the returns for the fiscal year 
ending June, 1882. 

"A" show^s the transactions of the year, including the 
total receipts from all sources and the number of persons 
employed. 

"B" the tonnage and the number of vessels documented 
in this district on June 30th, 1882, with the number of 
vessels built, lost at sea, etc. 

"C" the exports to foreign countries classified. 

The U. S. Revenue Steamer Colfax is attached to the 
Customs' Service at this port ; her complement consists of 
seven officers, a pilot and thirty men, and her cruising 
extends from Body's Island, N. C, to Georgetown, S, C. 

Connected, also, with the Customs' Service, is a Light 
Ship off Frying Pan Shoals, and a Light House on Bald 
Head, and another on Fort Caswell. 

These lights, together with the Life Saving Station, 
make arrival and departure of vessels, to and from this 
port, comparatively safe. 

During the winter season the Colfax is on the lookout 
for vessels in distress, along this course, and frequently 
renders timely assistance, without any expense to vessels, 
except for provisions furnished, or fuel expended. 

The following persons are employed by the Department, 
at this office. 

NUMBER or PERSONS EMPLOYED. 

1 Collector. 6 Other Employees. 

1 Deputy Collector. 1 Weigher and Ganger. 

2 Clerks, 6 Insi^ectors. 

1 Messenger. Aggregate 18. 



100 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 



A. 

No. of Vessels entered from Foreign Ports 181 

" Vessels cleared for Foreign Ports 267 

" Vessels entered from Domestic Ports 170 

" Vessels cleared for Domestic Ports 110 

" Entries of Merchandise for Duty 60 

" Entries of Merchandise free of Duty 26 

" Entries for Warehouse 6 

" Entries from Warehouse for ConsumjDtion 5 

" Entries for Consumption Liquidated 86 

" Entries for Warehouse Liquidated 6 

" Certificates of Registry granted „ 27 

" Certificates of Enrolment granted 22 

" Licenses for Coasting Trade granted 51 

" Licenses to Vessels under 20 tons granted... , 23 

Value of Exports— Domestic $5,793,188 00 

RECEIPTS FROM ALL SOURCES. 

Duties on imports $81,721 45 

Tonnage 10,180 80 

Marine Hospital Tax 1,587 04 

Fines, Penalties and Forfeitures 15 00 

Miscellaneous Customs Receij^ts 918 45 

Inspection of Steam-Vessels 567 70 

Official Fees 2,244 79 

Total $97,235 23 



B. 



. 


O >A 

K 

. cc 

O ^ 

^> 

1 

15 

21 

11 

6 

2 

25 
81 


Tonnage. 




Tons. 


lOOths 


Permanent Registers — Sail, Balance 


312 

3,235 

1,059 

1,018 

806 

445 

366 


23 


Temporary " — Sail, " 

Permanent Enrollments — Sail, " 


14 

98 


" '! —Wood Steam, Balance 

" " Iron Vessels, Steam, " 

Temporary " Sail Balance 


85 
93 

57 


Licenses under 20 tons. Sail, Coasting Trade,Balance 


89 


Total number of vessels and total tonnage of District 


7,245 


59 



Licenses of Enrolled Vessels in the Coasting 

Trade— Balance 47 5267 30 

Statement of Vessels Built 2 158 45 

" Vessels Lost at Sea and Wrecked 2 213 07 

" Vessels Abandoned as unfit for service 11 7 00 



WILMINGTON, NOKTH CAROLINA. 



c. 



101 



Statement of Domestic Commodities Exported to Foreign Ports During 
Fiscal Year Ended June 30th, 1882. 



Cotton. 


Rosin and 
Turpentine. 


Tar & Pitch. Spts.Turpentine 


Lumber. 


Bales 


Lbs. 


Dollars. 


Bbls. Dolls 


Bbls. 


Dolls. Galls. 


Dolls. 


Feet. Dolls. 


mMi 


29,922,17.5 


3,370,000 


347,5041818,346 


1,4889 


33,2531 2,850,552 


1,326,244 


12,721,000 225,614 



Shingles. 


Misfpl 1 Portion Carried 
lSous.p"A"^feLs^^V«^- 


Portion Carried 
in Foreign 
Vessels. 


Total Value of 
Exports of Domes- 
tic Merchandise. 


M. Dolls. 


Dolls. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


3,034 20,880 


3,851 1 155,772 


5,637.416 


5,793,188. 



FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE. 

The foreign carrying trade of Wilmington is done prin- 
cipall}^ by Norwegian, German and British vessels, in the 
order named, although there are a number of Swedish, 
Danish and Italian ships entered, with a few of other 
nationalities during the year. 

The class of vessels most suitable for cargoes of naval 
stores, are from 250 tons to 350 tons register, and these are 
generally of Scandinavian nationality. The German and 
British vessels in our trade, average about 350 tons ; several 
British ships trading here being 550, 700 and 950 tons regis- 
ter resi^ectively. It is well known that small sailing vessels 
are fast disappearing from the sea, experience having proved 
that large vessels, at even considerably lower rates of freight, 
are more j)rofitable, the ratio of running expenses being 
largely in favor of increased tonnage. This fact shows the 
necessity of our River and Harbor improvement, if we 
would keep pace with the changes already referred to. 
River and Bar lighterage has always been an objection- 
able clause in our Charter Parties, both on account of the 
delay and expense to the vessel, and the increased hazard 
to marine underwriters. 

During the year 1882 the total number of Scandinavian 
vessels entered in Wilmington was 99, aggregating 39,926 



102 WlLMlNGTOJi, NORTH CAROLINA. 

tons register, and 1,053 men ; of German vessels tliere were 
50, aggregating 18,481 tons, and 525 men ; of British ves- 
sels there were 40 arrivals, with a total registered tonnage 
of 10,769 tons, and 334 men. 

The other foreign vessels entered daring the year were as 
follows : 

8 Russian vessels. Tonnage 1,052 

3 Italian " " 1,132 

2 Austrian " " 744 

1 Greek " " 307 

1 Costa Rican " " 268 

1 Haytien '^ " 109 

2 Dutch " " 407 

18 4,019 

Appended herewith is a carefully prepared statement of 
vessels of all nationalities and their registered tonnage, 
entered and cleared in Wilmington during the years 1881 
and 1882. The ajjparent discrepancy between the Consular 
returns and this table for 1882, may be accounted for by 
the fact that some of the entries of the year 1882 extend 
into the clearances of 1883 : 

Classification of Clearances of Shipping for ths Years 1331 and 1832. 



STEAMERS. 




Flag. 


1881. 1 


1 1882. 




No. 

73 
1 


Tons. 

63,707 
1,518 


1 No. 

78 


Tons. 




73,591 


British 




BARKS. 




Flag 


1881. 1 


18»2. 




No. 

50 

105 

18 

19 

5 

1 


Tons. 

18,300 

37,408 

6,795 

7,340 

1,763 

260 


No. 


Tons. 




37 
77 
8 
15 
8 
2 
1 
2 
2 


13,575 




31,801 
2,922 






6,:i5S 




2,832 




708 


Dutch 


250 




' 




858 








744 


Haytien ... 


1 
4 


298 
1,324 




American 


:;::::::::::::::::::::....;:: i 


io 


3,309 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 



103 



BRIGS. 



Flag. 



1881. 



No. I Tons. 



German , 

Norwegian 

Swedish , 

Britisli 

Danish 

Russian 

Portuguese 

Costa Rica 

Haytien 

Greek 

Italian 

Dutch 

Amer ican ,.... 

SCHOONERS 



3,343 

5,2tj2 

1.439 

4,243 

4941 

3t)7 

J 72 



258 



20 t 5,962 



1882 



No. I Tons. 



3,028 

3,3(J9 

497 

2,505 

247 

344 



268 
109 
307 
274 
^ 157 
3,244 





1881. 1 1 1882. 




No. 


Tons. ' 1 No. 


Tons. 


American , 

British 


210 
12 


50,580' 197 
1,214 9 


51,220 
1,159 



TOTAL. 



1 1 1881. 

Steam and Sail. ! 

1 No. 1 Tons. 


1882. 


No. 1 Tons. 


Steaniers 74 65 225 


78 ! 73,591 
422 130,085 


Sailing Vessels ' 503 146,822 



FOREIGN CONSULS 

In Wilmington, are as follows : 



NAME. 



Frederick J. Lord.. 
O. G. Parsley, Jr... 
Alexander Sprunt.. 

Jacob Loeb 

Wm. L. DeRosset... 

R. E. Heide 

George Harriss 

Edouard Peschau... 
W. A. Cummius;.... 



RANK. 



Vice Consul. 



f Vice Consul 

t Consul 

Vice Consul... 



NATION. 



Spain 

Brazil 

Great Britain 

France 

Portugal 

{Norway 
Sweden 
Denmark 

Argentine Republic 

German}'^ 

Hayti 



Whev 

Appointed. 



May, 1843. 
1859. 

March 31, 1S6B 
May 29, 1807. 
March 30, 1868 

Dec. 10, 1870. 

October, 1871. 
Nov. 8, 1871. 
Dec. 7, 1874. 
March, 1874. 



104 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 
NOTARIES PUBLIC 



Appointed in the City of Wilmington since the passage 
of the Act of 1881, whose terms expire, under the provis- 
Bions of this act, two years from the date of their qualifica- 
tion, are as follows . 



NAME. 



Date of 
Appointment. 



Alex. S. Heide 

Wm. L. Smith, Jr... 

Thos. D. Meares 

Jno. W. Atkinson... 

Wm. A. Willson 

Tliomas Evans 

Andrew J. HowelL.. 
Elbridge G. Barker 
Micliael Cronly, Jr.. 

C. P. Mebaue 

Asa K. Wali^er 

Hanson M. Bowden 
Mattliew P. Taylor.. 

B. G. Empie 

H. H. Heide 

Louis Poisson Davis 

John K. Brown 

John R. Latta 



April 11th, 1881. 
May 18th, 1881. 
Julie 1st, 1881. 



June 6th, 1881. 
June 8th, 1881. 
June 15th, 1881. 
June 17th, 1881. 
June 24th, 1881. 

July 1st, 1881. 
January 11th, 1882. 
Februarv 6lh, 1882. 
July 29th, 1882. 
September 20th, 1882 
December 26th, 1882. 



UNITED STATES COURTS. 

The Circuit Court for the Eastern District of North 
Carolina meets at Raleigh, on the first Monday in June 
and the last Monday in November. Hon. Hugh L. Bond, 
of Baltimore, is Circuit Judge, with a salary of $6,000 a 
year. William S. O'B. Robinson is United States Attorney 
for this District, N. J. Riddick, Clerk, and Joshua B. Hill, 
Marshal. 

The District Court meets at Elizabeth City on the third 
Monday in April and October ; at New Berne on the 
fourth Monday in April and October, and at Wilmington 
on the first Monday after the fourth Monday in April and 
October. Hon. Augustus S. Seymour is District Judge ; 
salary $3,500 a year, with residence in New Berne. W. S. 
O'B. Robinson is also Attorney of this Court, and J. B, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 105 

Hill, Marshal ; W. H. Shaw, is Clerk, and Joseph H. Neff, 
Deputy Marshal. 

Jurors in this Court are iDa'id $2.00 per day and mileage, 
and witnesses $1.50 per day and mileage. 

E. H. McQuigg and E. H. King are United States Com- 
missioners in Wilmington. 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF CAPE FEAR RIVER BELOW 
WILMINGTON. 

Upon the ultimate success of the present operations by 
the General Government for the deejoening of Cape Fear 
River and Bar, depends, in a great measure, the future 
prosperity of Wilmington. All classes of our citizens are 
therefore directly interested in the accomplishment of this 
great undertaking, which means cheap through railway 
rates on grain and provisions from the Western States, to 
be handled and trans-shipped at less cost in Wilmington 
than in any other Southern port ; the develox)ment of our 
almost inexhaustible Coal and Iron region in the Deep 
River Yalley, now waiting a cheap outlet ; the enhance- 
ment by one hundred per cent, in the value of real estate, 
and especially of our three miles of water front, which is 
now of so little value ; the substantial encouragement of 
all our manufacturing industries ; the establishment of 
regular steam lines of first-class ships at cheaper and more 
reliable rates of freight to the principal seaports of the 
world, enabling us to compete more successfully with our 
Southern neighbors in those products which now depend 
for movement, in a great measure, upon slow sailing shij)s, 
extra insurance premiums and fluctuating rates of freight. 
A few of our citizens, appreciating the importance of this 
work, have, under many discouragements, kept their 
shoulders to the wheel, and by steady perseverance and the 
invaluable aid of our Representatives in Congress, accom- 
plished nearly all that has been done to promote the desired 
end. 



106 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The late Mr. Henry Nutt, as Chairman of the Committee 
appointed by the Chamber of Commerce, was, during the 
hist years of his life, indefatigable in his unselfish efforts, 
and had the satisfaction of seeing the most difficult part of 
the scheme —the closing of New Inlet— successfully accom- 
plished. 

The Hon. A. H. VanBokkelen, President of the Chamber 
of Commerce, has for three years past given a great part of 
his time and energy to the uninterrupted progress of tlie 
Engineers, by encouraging reports to our Senator, and by 
personal attendance at Washington. 

To Col. Craighill, United States Engineer, we are greatly 
indebted, not only for his skillful direction of the work, but 
also for his steady support of the scheme in his reports to 
the War Department. Assistant Engineer Bacon, in charge 
of the operations on the river, has kindly furnished me 
with the technical information on this subject. 

The Cape Fear River, from its mouth nearly to Wilming- 
ton, is properly a tidal estuary of about thirty-eight square 
miles. The river and its branches drain an area of about 
eight thousand square miles. The amount of fresh water 
passing out at the mouth, though large, is insignificant 
when compared with the tidal flow which alternatelj^ fills 
and empties this great reservoir. The mean "fresh water 
discharge of the river does not exceed 9,000 cubic feet per 
second, while the tidalilow at the entrance averages about 
175,000 cubic feet per se'^ond. This is the real force which 
creates and preserves the channel across the shifting sands 
of the coast at the mouth of the river. No demonstration 
is needed to prove the importance of concentrating this 
force. It is also apparent that such a force would be most 
efficient in preserving a passage across a bar and shoals 
which are in a position sheltered from the prevailing winds 
and heaviest storms of the coast. This we have at the 
natural mouth of the river, which is wholly sheltered from 
northerly, north-easterly, and in a great measure from 



WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 107 

easterly winds, by its position in the bay, protected by 
Cape Fear and the Frying Pan shoals. From the old maps 
of the river and harbor it appears that there was at the 
entrance a least depth of about 14 feet at low water. 
When, therefore, in 1761, the sea made a breach across the 
narrow sand-beach, which divided the sea from the river^ 
some seven miles above the month, which from that time 
became known as the New Inlet, the deterioration which 
afterwards occurred was anticipated, as appears, nega- 
tively, by the letter of Governor Tryon, in February 1769, 
in which he says: "H. M. ship Foly came in at the en- 
trance at half-tide, drawing 14 feet of water. The New 
Inlet, which was broken through a few years since, is used 
only by vessels drawing 7 or 8 feet of water. The New 
Inlet seems to have had no bad effect at the entrance." But 
the bad effect came gradually, as appears by subsequent 
maps and surveys, which show continual deterioration. 
The accurate and elaborate survey of Lieutenant Glynn, in 
1839, shows 9 feet depth at low water at the Bald Head 
channel, and the same at the other, or Western Bar of the 
entrance, and 10 feet at the New Inlet. The coast survey 
of 1851 shows 8 and 7 feat depth at the Rip, and 8 feet at 
the New Inlet. The coast survey chart of 1869 does not 
show much change, the available depths appearing to be 
about the same. The careful survey of Mr. Vinal, of the 
coast survey of 1872, shows 9 feet at low water at the Bald 
Head, and the same depth on the Rip of the western 
channel of the entrance, and 10 feet at the New Inlet Bar, 
No changes appear to have occurred in the upper river 
until improvements were made. [These soundings do not 
agree with the record of the Commissioners of Navigation.] 
The improvement of the river below Wilmington was 
begun by the State of North Carolina, and continued from 
1823 to 1828, In 1829 it was taken in hand by the United 
States, and from 1829 to 1838 inclusive. Congress made 
annual appropriations amounting to $202,539, which were 



108 WILMIKGTON, NORTH CAROLHSTA. 

expended in improving the river from Wilmington to 
Campbell's (Big) Island, about 9 miles belov^. The opera- 
tions consisted mostly of pile and plank jetties, made to 
concentrate the currents ; some dredging was also done. 
The plans initiated by the State were continued by the 
United States. An available increase of about 2 feet was 
obtained, so that 9 to 9^ feet could be carried at low water. 
Projects for improvement were revived in 1852, when Con- 
gress appropriated $20,000, and $140,000 was appropriated 
in 1854. These appropriations were expended for the 
improvement at the entrance by jetties at Bald Head 
Point, and by closing the breaches between Smith's and 
Zeke's Islands. When the latter works were nearly com- 
pleted and the appropriation exhausted, a great storm in 
September 1857, destroyed, to a considerable extent, the 
works at Zeke's Island, leaving the stone foundations. 
Nothing further was done toward improvement until 1870, 
when the work was begun again. The following appropri- 
ations have been made by Congress : 

By act approved July 11, 1870 $100,000 

By act approved March 3, 1871 75,000 

By act approved June 10, 1872 100,000 

By act approved March 3, 1873 100,000 

By act approved June 23, 1874 150,000 

By act approved March 3, 1875 150,000 

By act approved August 14, 1876 132,500 

By act approved June 18, 1878, 160,000 

By act approved March 3, 1879 100,000 

By act approved June 14, 1880 '. 70,000 

By act approved March 3, 1881 140,000 

By act approve 1 August — , 1882 225,000 

Total $1,502,500 

The project adopted in 1870 was the closure of the breach 
between Smith's and Zeke's Islands, with the ultimate 
closure of the New Inlet in view. In 1873 and 1874 the 



WltMlNGTOI^, #ORTlt CATiottNA. -l09 

additional work projected was the dredging of the new 
channel behind the Horse Shoe Shoals, near Snow's Marsh, 
and dredging the Bald Head Channel (which had already 
begun to improve), and also dredging and removing obsta- 
cles from the river between Campbell's Island and Wilming- 
ton, so as to obtain 12 feet depth at mean low water. In 
1875 the work of closing the New Inlet was begun in 
earnest, A continuous line of mattresses, composed of 
logs and brush, sunk and loaded with stone, was laid 
entirely across the New Inlet, from October, 1875, to June, 
1876. This was the first foundation of the dam. 

As fast as appropriations were available, the work was 
continued from year to year, by piling small stone rip-rap 
on and over this foundation, and finally bringing it up to 
high water, and then covering it with heavy granite stones 
on the top and slopes to low water. There were many real 
discouragements during the progress of the work, not to 
speak of the almost universal prediction of ultimate 
failure by the pilots and others, who were well acquainted 
with the forces to be contended with. The great rush of 
the tidal currents in and out can hardly be realized, even 
now, when it is shown that the alternate difference in level 
on the sea and river sides of the dam at the diiferent stages 
is usually from 1 to 2 feet, and a difference of 3^ feet has 
been observed. 

This rush and over-fall caused a scour on both sides of 
the foundation to a depth of from 6 to 16 feet below the 
bottom of the mattresses, and the water found its way 
under the mattresses, and the scouring caused their irregu- 
lar subsidence. In some instances the settlement was 10 
or 12 feet within twenty-four hours. The only, or at least 
the best remedy, was to continue to pile on the stone and 
let them go to their limit, thus making the foundation from 
90 to 120 feet in width at the base, where the original mat- 
tresses were from 45 to 60 feet. The whole work, from 
stiore to shore. Federal Point to Zeke's Island, is nearly a 



110 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

mile in length. For about three-foiirtli's of a mile of this 
length the stone go to an average depth of about 30 feet 
below the top of the dam ; in many places the depth is 
more than 36 feet. The limit of subsidence was reached 
during the year 1878, since which it has only been neces- 
sary to widen the foundation and cover the dam with heavy 
rock. This was carefully done by the use of three floating 
derricks — one of which was operated by steam — between 
December 1879 and July 1881. The stone used in its con- 
struction amounts to 181,600 cubic yards, including the 
16,756 gross tons of heavy granite. During the progress 
of the work the small stones below half-tide were being 
cemented into a solid mass by oysters and barnacles ; and 
now the whole structure, with its granite surface, is like 
one solid rock. Its crest is above the level of ordinary 
Spring tides, and there can be no question of its perma- 
nence. 

When the magnitude and apparent and real difficulty of 
the work are considered, the cost has been small. The 
whole cost, from its inception, in 1875, to its thorough com- 
pletion, in 1881, has not exceeded $480,000. 

During the first three years of the construction of the 
dam, it did not much affect the quantity of the in-and-out 
flow of tides at the New Inlet, but as it approached com- 
pletion, the stoppage was more and more, and the effect on 
the Bald Head channel increased; this was also assisted 
by the operation of the suction dredge Woodbury, which 
was thoroughly rebuilt and put in operation on the Bald 
Head channel early in April 1879, and continued work until 
October 1881, during which time 169,491 cubic yards of 
sand were dredged and dumped in deep water. In good 
weather the amount of compact sand dredged and carried 
to deep water for dumping, would often amount to 500 cubic 
yards per day, and occasionally to more than 600 cubic 
yards. The large amount of materials removed by the 
dredge, bore a small proportion to the amount carried out 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA . Ill 

by the natural force of the tidal currents, as frequent sur- 
veys have proved. The following were the shortest sound- 
ings in the Bald Head channel at the end of the fiscal 
years :- 1878, 9 feet; 1879, 11 feet; 1880, 13 feet; 1881, 14 
feet ; 1882, 14 feet. It is probable that there would have 
been farther increase of depth in 1882 if the operations of 
the suction dredge had been continued. As it is, the 
results are gratifying, being greater than our predictions or 
expectations, bringing the channel into as good or better 
condition that before the breach of the New Inlet in 1761. It 
is a practical demonstration of the advantage of closing 
the New Inlet by the completed dam. The mean range of 
the tides being 4^ feet, 17^ feet draft can be carried over 
the bar and shoals at ordinary high water and 18i feet at 
Spring tides. 

The available depth of water between Smithville and 
Wilmington only allows about 14| feet draft at high water. 
The imjDortance of obtaining a greater depth was apparent. 
An estimate for it was placed before Congress at the 
instance of the Hon. Senator M. W. Ransom, in January, 
1881, and an appropriation of $140,000 designed in part for 
it was made by Congress by act approved March 3, 1881, 
The project adopted was for a channel to be dredged, 
where dredging was needed to obtain it, of 270 feet width 
and 10 feet depth at mean low water, from the deep water 
at Smithville harbor to Wilmington. 

The first contract for dredging was made in May, 1881, 
and it is not yet -completed. Another appropriation of 
$225,000 was made in August, 1882. A portion of this is 
already applied to the dredging referred to, and the work 
under the second contract is to be completed according to 
its terms, by June 30, 1883. This will finish the channel 
to 16 feet depth about half the distance from the harbor to 
Wilmington. About half of the last appropriation is reserved 
for the probable requirement to defend the long narrow 
beach at Smith's Island against the encroachments of the 



112 WILMIISrOTOTs^, NORTH CAROLINA. 

sea. The breaches through this, though at present remote 
from the river, with long shoal water intervening, might in 
the course of years become connected by deep water with 
the river, and thus repeat the history of the New Inlet in a 
new location. To guard against this, a defence must ulti- 
mately be made, and it can now be made at a comparatively 
small cost. It is under advisement by a Board of Engin- 
eers, who will probably decide to make it, by a continua- 
tion of the work of the New Inlet dam, or the Zeke's Island 
works across the shoal water to the Big Marsh, thus cut- 
ting off the connection of the Swashes across Smith's Island 
and the river. Such a work would probably cause tlie 
reformation of the beach, or at least of a wide inner beach 
at a considerable distance from the defensive work. 

If the needed appropriations are made by Congress the 
projected channel of 16 feet dex)th will be completed to 
Wilmington during the year 1885. 

There is no doubt that by a proper jetty system 20 feet 
depth at low water can be obtained at the mouth of the 
river and on the bar. The question of obtaining it from 
the harbor to Wilmington is only one of dollars and 
cents. 

It is greatly regretted that (Congress has adjourned with- 
out the usual appropriations for this important and neces- 
sary undertaking, as it is of vital moment that the opera- 
tions in thp Cape Fear are not retarded at this important 
stage of the work; although the present available means 
will suffice for a few months to come, the defeat of the 
River and Harbor Bill threatens a serious blow to probably 
the most important public work ever projected in North 
Carolina. 

OCEAN AND RIVER STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANIES. 

The following list comprises the Steam Lines engaged in 
the Wilmington carrying trade. The "New York and 
Wilmington Steamship Company" is a corporation char- 



WILMINGTON", NORTH CAKOLINA. 



118 



tered by the State of New York, and owns the following 
iron propellers : 

"Gulf Stream," 998 tons, 

"Benefactor," 844 " 

"Regulator," 847 " 
Mr. Thos. E. Bond is the Superintendent at Wilmington, 
and Messrs. W. P. Clyde & Co. General Agents at New 
York. 

The imjoorts and exports by this line of first class steam- 
ers for the year 1882 were as follows : 

EXPORTS. 

Cotton, bales, 58,655. Rice, meal, sacks, 



Lumber, feet, 5,640,707. 

Shooks, 2,935. 

Shingles, 1,292,000. 

Naval Stores, bbls, 95,607. 
Spirits Turpentine " 27.400. 
Rice, cleaned, tcs, . . 3,950. 



" rough, " 
Molasses, hlids, . . 
Peanuts, sacks, . . 
Pig Iron, tons,. . . 

Yarn, bales, 

Merchandise, pkgs 



4,396. 
4,131. 

130. 
1,197. 

174. 

366. 
7 676. 



IMPORTS. 



Syrup, bbls, 1,379. Ties, bundles, 3,162. 



Sugar, " 6,195. 

Bacon, boxes, 10,318. 

Lard, pkgs, 1,570. 

Corn, sacks, 114,503. 

Oats, " 7,251. 

Hay, bales, 25,328. 

Liquor, pkgs, , 686. 

Oil(lubricating only) 

bbls, 144. 

Coffee, sacks, 5,913. 



Bagging, rolls, .... 15,875. 

Cement, bbls, 600. 

Water Pipe, pieces, 916. 

Brick, 10,200. 

Sulphur, tons, 437. 

Railroad Iron, rails, 2,785. 

Merchandize, pkgs, 143,601 

Shoes, cases, 3,776. 

Barrels, empty, .... 21,346. 

Guano, sacks, 40,510. 



Express Steamboat Company.— Capital $50,000. 

Wilmington and Fayetteville. 

capacity. 
"D. Murchison," 1,000 barrels. 
"Wave," 800 " 



COST. 




122,000. 


Iron Hull 


13,000. 


(I u 



114 wilmington, north cakolina. 

Cape Fear and People's Steamboat Company. — 

Capital $75,000. 

Wilmington and Fayetteville. 





capacity. 


COST. 




"Gov. Worth," 


1,200 barrels. 


145,000. 


Iron hull. 


"A. P. Hurt," 


400 " 


17,000. 


u u 


"North State," 


700 " 


•17,000. 


Wooden " 



By these two lines we have a daily (except Sunday) boat, 
and on Tuesdays and Fridays, two boats. 



Wilmington and Fayetteville. 

capacity. cost. 

"Bladen," 500 barrels. $6,000. Wooden Hull. 



Wilmington and Point Casw^ell. 

capacity. cost. 

'John Dawson," 350 barrels. $6,500. Wooden Hull. 



Wilmington and Smitiiville. 

CAPACITY\ cost. 

"Passport," 250 passengers. 18,000. Wooden Hull. 
"Minnehaha," 200 " 7,000. " " • 

IMPROVEMENTS OF CAPE FEAR RIVER BETWEEN 
WILMINGTON AND FAYETTEVILLE. 

From a report of Capt. James Mercur, in charge of the 
work, I learn that an examination or survey of this part of 
the Cape Fear was directed by the River and Harbor Act of 
Congress, June 14, 1882. 

The improvements proposed consisted in the removal of 
snags and logs, the clearing away of overhanging trees on 
the banks, a small amount of dredging, and the construc- 
tion of jetties or dykes. The total estimated cost of the 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 115 

work proposed was about $56,000, which, however, was only 
for a part of the work that will be required for the entire 
portion of the river in need of improvement. The Act of 
March 3, 1881, appropriated $30,000 with a proviso that 
$10,000 of this sum was to be expended in extinguishing 
before December 1, 1881, the interest or franchise of the 
Deep River Navigation Company, which claimed the right 
to collect tolls, &c , under its State charter ; which after a 
careful investigation by Capt. Mercur, of the Engineer 
Department, was expended in full accordingly. 

In June, 1882, work upon the river was begun under the 
direction of Capt. W. H. James, Civil Engineer of Wil- 
mington, and is still in progress, — clearing the channel of 
such obstructions as sunken logs, snags, stumps and fallen 
trees, and in cutting and hauling back from the banks over- 
hanging trees on the channel side, which were liable to fall, 
or damage the upper works of steamers, thrown by the set 
of the current near the banks. 

The further work contemplated by the Engineer is to 
reduce the width of the river channel at 22 Shoals, (lying 
between Fayetteville and Cypress Shoals, a distance of 52 
miles) by the use of jetties of timber, plank and scantling, 
which are intended to scour the narrowest channel to a 
depth of about 4 feet at ordinary low water. 

There is also some blasting of sandstone rock, dangerous 
to navigation at points between the limits referred to. 

Every freshet brings down trees, logs, snags, and other 
debris, which will necessitate a moderate amount of work 
in removing obstructions from year to year ; and even if 
the river was satisfactorily scoured and jettied, new shoals 
are likely to form at other points, requiring attention in 
future. Probably, with this in view, a further appropria-- 
tion was made by Congress, in August, 1882, of 135,000, 
the use of which, it is thought, will greatly facilitate the 
navigation of this imi)ortant and historic stream. 

As a matter of interest in this connection Ihave appendjpd 



116 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

the following report of Mr. George H. Elliot, U. S. Engineer, 
which is so complete in detail as to require no further 
reference to the subject. 

]S"oRFOLK, Va., January 24th, 1881. 
Captain : — 

I have the honor to submit herewith report of the exam- 
ination of the Ca]3e Fear River, North Carolina, between 
Wilmington and Fayetteville, made in compliance with 
your instructions in the early part of the present month. 
This examination was for the purpose of ascertaining the 
cost and i^racticability of clearing away logs and over- 
hanging trees, and of dredging out such shoals as inter- 
fere with commerce. 

A survey of this river was made in 1871, when that por- 
tion of it now under consideration was carefully sounded. 
It was thought that no material change had taken i)lace in 
the general character since that time, and that a resurvey 
would be unnecessary ; and the testimony of pilots and 
others conversant with the river, is to this effect. The 
examination was therefore limited to ascertaining, so far 
as j)racticable, the number of snags, sunken logs, and 
overhanging trees to be removed. 

A freshet which had commenced to raise the water in the 
river, prevented the observations being as thorough as was 
desirable, but it is believed that the information obtained 
from pilots and captains is as satisfactory with regard to 
the objects at present in view, as could be had except from 
an expensive survey, which would have to include the 
dragging of the river, to ascertain with any exactness the 
number of sunken logs and snags. Under these circum- 
stances, trips were made up and down the river between 
Wilmington and Fayetteville, when notes were taken as to 
the locality of such snags, &c., as they (the pilots) had 
knowledge of ; these are indicated on the charts herewith. 
(11 in number), which are tracings of the maj^s of the 
survey of 1871, with such slight changes as have been found 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 117 

necessary. A tabulated list of the snags is also given at 
the end of this report. 

In addition to the snags, &c., which are individually 
mentioned, there are several stretches of the river where 
such obstructions exist ; these are also stated in the list. 
The overhanging trees are very frequent from Fayetteville 
for some sixty miles down the river ; below that they are 
less so. Few of the trees are large, and at present they 
do not much obstruct navigation, but their tendency is to 
fall into the river when the banks are weakened by the 
action of the freshet water; for this reason a large number 
of them ought to be removed. 

The b«d of the river for some 66 miles below Fayetteville 
is composed almost entirely of sand, which is constantly 
changing in position from the action of freshets. During 
the Summer months the volume of water is insufficient to 
give a continuous channel, the river then presenting a 
succession of sand bars and shoals, with occasional deep 
water, principally in the bends. 

Any improvement, to be permanent, will necessitate the 
contraction of the channel way in many of the straight 
reaches over a large portion of the distance named. 

With the exception of one place (Thames' Shoal), dredging 
would be useless, as the first freshet would fill up any 
channel excavated through the shifting sand. Thames' 
Shoal is a bed of pipe-clay, through which it is proposed to 
dredge a channel of 60 feet in width to a depth of 5 feet at 
low summer water. 

The bed of the river contains, also, many sunken logs, 
under the sand in some cases, as is stated by the pilots 
who have been engaged in removing snags, &c. , overlying 
each other ; to what extent cannot well be ascertained 
except by actual operations in removing them. 

The im2-)rovements needed in the river are confined prin- 
cipally to the 75 miles from Fayetteville down ; over 
this entire portion the banks need trimming of the over- 
hanging trees, and snags and logs should be removed from 



118 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

the river-bed. To accomplish this work will require the 
employment of a hoister with the necessary appliances for 
dragging the bottom to find and raise snags, &c. This work 
can only be done satisfactorily at a low stage of water, and 
will cost about $500 per mile ; an estimate for this sum is 
submitted. 

As previously stated, there is no continuous channel 
for some 60 miles, and to x>rovide one will require the con- 
traction of the water-way. I am not prepared to submit an 
estimate for this entire work, but respectfully suggest that 
an amount of $5,000 be appropriated for the construction 
of experimental jetties or dikes of cheap character, to be 
placed at right angles to the axis of the stream, at inter- 
vals, from either side, to be built a little above the ordinary 
low summer water, and to be placed first in the shoalest of 
the straight reaches. Dikes of piles wattled between have 
proved quite successful in other rivers of similar character, 
and can be constructed for about $1 per running foot. An 
estimate is also submitted for the excavation of a channel 
through Thames' Shoal (previously mentioned). 

I would mention, incidentally, that while on the river, 
the Steamer Gorier nor Worth struck a log which had lodged 
ih a tree near Council's Bluff, and, after running about 1^ 
miles, sunk ; the locality of the wreck is indicated on chart. 
She will doubtless be raised by her owners as soon the 
freshet subsides. 

ESTIMATE. 

For clearing 75 miles of river, at $500 i)er mile, $37,500 

For dredging at Thames' Shoal channel, 1,900 feet 

by GO feet, 15,000 cubic yards, at 40 cents, 0,000 

For construction of experimental dike, say 5,000 

linear feet, at $1 per foot, 5,000 



$48,500 
And for contingencies and engineering, 15 jiercent, 7,275 



Total, $55,775 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 119 



Fayetteville, the head of steamboat navigation proper, is 
situated about a mile from the river, 113 miles above 
Wilmington. It is a nourishing town, with a popluation of 
some 7,000 and is, next to Wilmington, the principal depot 
for naval stores in the State. Within a few miles, are 
several cotton and woolen mills, and others are now 
projected. For miles, in either direction, turpentine 
distilleries are found. Cotton is raised to a considerable 
extent in the vicinity ; it is estimated that 10,000 bales will 
be brought in for shipment this season, and the production 
is continually increasing. There is also quite an extensive 
industry in flouring mills, the product of which is shipiied 
in considerable quantities. Five steamers are regularly 
engaged plying between Wilmington and Fayetteville ; 
these, with one exception (the Go-oernor Worth, a side-wheel 
steamer), are stern-wheel boats, with a load-draught of 
something less than 4 feet. There is also railroad commu- 
nication with the seaboard via Raleigh and Weldon, at 
Norfolk. Full statistics of the commerce of Fayetteville 
and the river generally were expected to be furnished by 
parties engaged in the shipping interests, but have not yet 
been received. This is to be regretted, as from what the 
writer learned in conversation, they would show a very 
marked increase over those obtained in 1871. 

The only town between Wilmington and Fayetteville is 
Elizabeth, the county seat of Bladen ; a small population 
is scattered in the vicinity, engaged in the manufacture of 
naval stores, which are brought here for shipment. River 
landings are very numerous, there being about one hundred 
on the river, most of which are places for shipment of the 
staple of this section. 

* * •«■ * * -5^ * f: 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEO. H. ELLIOT, Assistant Engineer. 
Capt. Chas. B. Phillips, 

Corps of Engineers U. S. A." 



120 WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 

LILLINGTON RIVER IMPROVEMENTS. 

Captain W. H. James, Engineer, is entrnsted with this 
work, for which the General Government has api)ropiiated 
$6,000. 

Until a petition was sent to Congress for improvements, 
this stream was known as Long Creek. The improvements 
consist in clearing out snags and logs, cutting down over- 
hanging trees, and the dredging off of a few abruj^t points, 
with the intention of securing five feet of navigable water 
from the mouth of the river, where it empties into the Cape 
Fear, to the village of Lillington, about eleven miles 
above. 

This stream is very tortuous, and the natural course is 
similar to a double inverted S. The engineers propose to 
cut through the loops of the S, and dredge the channel, 
thus saving both distance and expense. 

Instead of a gradual slope downwards, towards the 
bottom of the channel, the banks overhang the stream, and 
the slope above the river surface being soft clay, retards 
the progress of flats and rafts, and renders the river other- 
wise diificult of navigation, which these cut-offs are intended 
to obviate. 

The estimate for the work is $6,003.75, and the following 
letter from Captain Phillips, to the Chief of Engineers, 
will convey a correct idea of its importance to our city : 

"United States Engineer's Office, ) 
Norfolk, Va., January 29, 1881. f 

"General:— Your letter of the 17th of June, 1880, 
placed me in charge of the examination or survey of Lil- 
lington River, North Carolina, provided for in the last 
river and harbor appropriation act of Congress. I entrusted 
the examination to a party in charge of Assistant J. P. 
Darling, who took up and completed the field work during 
the month of August last. * % ^- * * 

" His report, as well as tracings, two in number, from his 
original map, exhibiting the present condition of the river, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 121 

and the localities of the proposed improvements, are 
respectfully transmitted herewith. 

" Lillington River is a tributary to the northeast branch of 
the Cai^e Fear River, emptying into the latter from the 
west, at a point about twelve miles above the city of 
Wilmington, North Carolina. 

" Transportation upon the river is at present limited to 
rafts of timber and flat-boats, loaded chiefly with naval 
stores and cord-wood. 

"Above the village of Lillington, a little over eleven miles 
from the mouth of the river, it appears to be impracticable 
to attempt any improvement of the river ; or at least the 
amount of trade, both present and prospective, does not 
seem to warrant any expenditure upon the portion of the 
river in question. 

"Below the village of Lillington, and from thence to the 
mouth of the river, the trade is of more importance, and 
it would no doubt be greatly stimulated if the produce of 
the vicinity could be reached by light-draught steamboats. 

"The obstructions to a 5-foot navigation, outside of a few 
snags and leaning trees, consist solely in a few abrupt 
bends, which can be rectified at a slight expense by 
dredging at six points, which are indicated upon the accom- 
panying tracings. 

"Mr. Darling's estimate for the whole work, including 
dredging and the removal of snags and other obstructions, 
amounts to but $6,000. The estimate seems to be low, but 
as he has allowed a large margin for contingencies, I think 
the amount sufficient to cover the cost of the desired im- 
provements ; and it appears to me that the amount might 
well be devoted to developing the section of country adja- 
cent to the river. 

"Lillington River is in the collection district of Wil- 
mington, North Carolina. * ^ * 4t * 
" I am. General, very respectfy, your ob*t serv't, 

"CHAS. B. PHILLIPS. 
Captain of Engineers. 
" The Chief of Engineers U. S. A:' 



122 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

DRY DOCKS. 

The Empire Sectional Dock was built in tliis place several 
years ago by the present proprietors, Messrs. J. R. Blossom 
& Evans, at a cost of about $34,000. 

The dock, which is considered one of the best in the 
South, comprises three sections, thirty feet wide and 
seventy feet long, equal to about 1,200 tons. The keel 
room is at present only 150 long, but other sections will be 
added in case of need. Until our bar and river improve- 
ment work will admit a much larger class of vessels than 
are now trading to AVilmington, the Empire Dock affords 
ample facilities. 

The rates for sailing vessels are 25 cents per ton for 
taking up, with no further charge until the expiration of 
twenty-four hours, when the rate for each subsequent day 
is 12^ cents per ton. 

Steamers and vessels with cargo on board are charged 
higher rates, in proportion to their weight. There is 
also a 

MARINE RAILWAY, 

long established, in the lower part of the harbor, and now 
leased by Capt. S. W. Skinner, whose facilities are ample, 
and the charges about the same as thos^ of the Empire 
Dock. 

WILMINGTON & WELDON RAILROAD. 

This railroad was i^rojected solely by the Wilmington 
people, and completed in 1836. Its length is from Wil- 
mington to Weldon, 163 miles, through New Hanover, 
Pender, Dux)lin, Wayne, Wilson, Edgecombe, Nash and 
Halifax counties, with branch roads from Rocky Mount 
to Tarboro, a distance of 17 miles, and from Halifax to 
Scotland Neck, 20 miles. It is beyond question the best 
equipped, and most successfully managed road in the 
South, and will compare favorably with any Northern 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 123 

railroad for travelling comfort and speed, as well as in its 
facilities for the dispatch of freight business, and in the 
efficiency of its employes. In response to my request for 
information upon matters of interest discussed by the 
Exchange at a previous meeting. President Bridgers has 
made the following reply, from which it would appear that 
the complaints of discrimination against Wilmington upon 
the local tariff are hardly justified by the facts : 

"In consequence of the enquiries made of me by you a 
few days ago, I instructed our Auditor to make a minute 
analysis of the rates we nov^^ have, as com^Dared with those 
in existence before the war. I enclose his letter, showing 
the reductions between Wilmington and local stations. 
We could have gone much more into detail on the various 
items, but it would have made too long a document for 
your consideration. 

We have no hesitation in saying that the average diminu- 
tion of these rates is about 40 j)er cent. The reduction in 
rates has been much more rapid than the increase of 
tonnage. 

So much has been said about the difference between 
"through" and "local" shipments, that I will refer briefly 
to the causes therefor. 

From the closest comjjarison we can make, we find the 
cost of transporting local freights, with the extra handling 
and other incidental expenses added, is about 2|- times the 
cost of transi)orting through freight. To illustrate, a 
through train, having to make no stops, goes from Wil- 
mington to Weldon in one day. A local train requires two 
days. A local train burns more fuel in a day than a 
through train, and requires about three times as many 
laborers. 

Thus, you see, one through train does as much work as 
two locals, the latter being run at a much greater expense 
by increase of fuel and labor. 

If you wish to look into the details of our operations 



124 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

for tlie last year, you will find them pablislied in our 
annual reports, copies of wliicli are herewith enclosed." 

Wilmington, N. C, February 13th, 1883. 
"Hon. R. E. Bridgers, President: 

Sir :— As requested by you, I have examined the freight 
rates on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, and find that 
reductions have been made on all classes of goods from the 
rates in effect before the war. I cannot find any rates on 
cotton and lumber earlier than 1869, at which time the 
rates on other freights were similar to those in effect before 
the war — the high rates having been cut down to those of 
1860. 

The following will show the reductions between Wilming- 
ton and local stations : 

REDUCED. 

1^'irst class freight in 1882, compared with 1860, 53 per cent. 
Freight on Bacon, " " " " " 60" " 

" Salt, " " " '• " 53 " " 

" " Flour, " " " " " 24 " " 

" Cotton, " " " " 1869, 24 " •' 

" " Lumber" " " " " 26 " ''• 

Average reduction on all classes, from rates of 1860, 40 
per cent. 

Yours Respectfully, 

\V. A. RIACH, 

General Auditor.'''* 

The reduction in rates (40 per cent.), claimed by Presi- 
dent Bridgers should not be taken as exceptional. I have 
ascertained that the same ratio of reduction obtains upon 
other roads in the South, and that the proportion is very 
much greater in favor of Northern railways. 

Comparing the rates on New York railroads in 1860, 
upon such articles as bacon, salt, fiour and cotton, with 
those now current, I find an average reduction of nearly 
70 per cent., or 30 per cent more than on the Wilmington 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 125 

& Weldon Railroad. Such a comparison would be mani- 
festly unfair, however, when the volume of traffic and num- 
ber of competing lines are so much greater in the North. 

President Bridgers' last annual report, November 21st, 
1882, sliows : 

Gross earnings, S 783,790.27 

Total expenses, 574,318.30 

Leaving a net of ^ 209,471.98 

The receipts show an increase of $32,873.43 which is made 
up as follows : 

Through Freight, $ 1,033.88 

" Passengers, 16,877.07 

Local Passengers, ■' 24,042.30 

Mail and Express, 11,930.97 $53,884.22 

Decrease in Local Freight, 21,010.79 

Net Increase, $32,873.43 

''Large expenditures have been made during the year in 
betterments— bridges, warehouses, new cars and engines- 
amounting to $121,749.16. 

Also a large quantity of material for the erection of 
machine shops at Wilmington, which has been paid for. 

It is very necessary that improvements should be made 
at Tarboro, during this year, and that the warehouse at 
Wilmington be built, and machine shops completed. So 
much of the old iron rail has been replaced with steel that 
in future the expenses of this important item will be mate- 
rially diminished. 

New sleeping cars have been contracted for and will be 
delivered on or before the first of January. They will be 
furnished with all the modern improvements, and will add 
very much to the attractiveness of this route and to the 
comfort of its passengers^ 



126 WILMINGTON", NORTH CAROLINA. 

The track of the main line has been very much im- 
proved in every respect during the year and is inline condi- 
tion. 

The road from Scotland Neck to Halifax has been com- 
pleted at a cost of $79,950.58, and was regularly opened 
for the transaction of business on the 1st day of October, 
1882. Its track is laid with forty pound steel rail and is 
now in good running condition, and the road is doing a 
very fair business. 

There has been an exemption from accidents, due to the 
good condition of the track and machinery, and the faithful 
discharge of the duties of the employes in the various 
departments." 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

R. R. Bridgers, President. 

B. F. Newcomer, Vice-President. 

J. W. Thompson, Secretary and Treasurer. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

W. T. Walters, A. J. DeRosset, 

B. F. Newcomer, Donald MacRae, 

S. M. Shoemaker, E. B. Borden, 

H. B. Plant, W. H. Willard, 

H. Walters, GtEORge Howard. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

John F. Divine, General Superintendent. 

Sol. Haas, Traffic Manager. 

T. M. Emerson, Gen'l Freight and Passenger Ag't. 

W. A. RiACH, General Auditor. 

John R. Latta, Assistant Auditor. 

James Knight, Master of Transportation. 

John Bisset, Master of Machinery. 

John Barry, Road Master. 

E. F. Cason, Store-Keeper, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 127 

THE WILMINGTON, COLUMBIA & AUGUSTA RAILROAD. 

This road is 189 miles in length, and passes from Wil- 
mington into South Carolina, through Brunswick and 
Columbus counties, North Carolina, and continues its route 
through Marion, Darlington, Sumter and Richland coun- 
ties, South Carolina. 

The President's annual report, dated November 21, 1882, 
gives the following : 

"The gross receipts for the year are $692,628.52, being an 
increase of $51,672.22 over those of the preceding year, 
which is made up as follows : 

Through Freight | 6.59 

Local Freight 20,578.41 

Through Passengers 9,704.64 

Local Passengers 8,272.02 

Mail and Express 13,110.56 

Total increase $51,672.22 

The expenses are $553,036.57, in addition to which the 
following amounts have been paid for improvements : 

Two New Engines $ 25,898.10 

One Hundred and Fifty Box Cars. . .$88,471.50 

Two Baggage Cars 4,986.00 

Two Postal Cars 7,412.56 100,870.06 

Warehouse at Timmonsville 4,865.09 

Whiteville 4, 536. 85 

" Wilmington 12,773.45 22,175.39 

Total $148,943.55 

Also 2,200 tons of steel rail and necessary fastenings have 
been put in the track. 

For the present year we will not require more than 1,000 
tons of rail, less than one-half of the quantity used last 
year. It is a subject of congratulation that we have replaced 
iron with steel rail to such an extent that the expenditures 



128 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

for rail will be considerably less than for several years 
past. 

With the increased equipment, which was completed 
about the close of the fiscal year, increased recei^Dts may 
be expected another year. The receipts would have been 
larger with more motive power and a larger number of 
freight and passenger cars. It is submitted whether it 
would not be policy to buy two locomotive engines and 
four passenger cars during the current year. 

The warehouse at Wilmington, so long needed, will be 
completed in a few weeks, and will fully meet the require- 
ments of the business. 

Contracts have been made for the thorough equipment 
of tlie Roads constituting the Atlantic Coast Line with new 
Pullman Sleeping Cars, and this Company's proportion of 
the cost of the same will be about $48,000.00, to meet 
which, and to furnish two additional locomotive engines 
and new passenger cars, it will become necessary to increase 
the floating debt or to suspend dividends for a limited time. 

The tonnage in freights has largely increased, and but 
for a general reduction in rates, would have given much 
larger net receipts. 

The Central Railroad of South Carolina, which has been 
leased jointly by this Company and the North Eastern 
Rail Road Company, was delivered to the Lessees on A pril 
1st, 1882. Considerable expenditures were necessary to 
perfect its new road-bed, quite equalling what would have 
been required for an old road-bed. The receipts will ai)pear 
from the Superintendent's Report. The net above rental 
and operating expenses has been 83,009.02. 

The Central Road has diverted considerable business at 
Sumter and other near stations from this Road, the profits 
on which diverted traffic have been about made up by the 
additional business received at Columbia. No regular 
through i^assenger trains have been run between Charleston 
and Columbia because of the deficiency of motive power 
and cars. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 129 

This Road lias been remarkably free from accidents, due 
to its good condition and the efficient discharge of the duties 
of the various officers and employes of the sevei'al 
departments. 

Abstract from the Superintendent's Report, 

Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta R. R. Co., ) 

General Superintendent's Office, ^ 

Wilmington, N. C, November 21, 1882. ) 

HON. R. R. BRIDGERS, President Wilmington, Colum 

bia & Augusta Rail Road Company : 

Sir :- The following report of the operations of this 
Company, for the fiscal year ending 3()th September, 1882, 
is respectfully submitted : 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

RECEIPTS. 

From Through Passengers I 89,177 45 

Local " 80,789 69-1169,967 14 

Through Freight $120,431 36 

Local '' 304,305 77— 424,737 13 



Express 10,426 10 

U. S. Mail 68,269 35 

Telegraph 1,098 18 

Rent of Old Rail 3,009 51 

Minor Sources 25,121 11 



Total $692,628 52 

EXPENSES. 

Conducting Transportation $100,892 23 

Motive Power 124,795 57 

Maintenance of Cars 70,049 95 

Maintenance of Roadway 218,841 t^b 

General Expenses ". 38,457 27-$553,036 57 



Net Receipts $139,591 95 

JOHN F. DIVINE, 

General Superintendent. 



130 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

R. R. Bripgers, President. 

W. T. Walters, Vice-President. 

J. W. Thompson Secretary and Treasurer. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

W. T. Walters, J. D. Cameron, 

S. M. Shoemaker, George S. Brown, 

B. F. Newcomer, H. B. Plant, 

George C. Jenkins, R. R. Bridgers. 

Enoch Pratt, H. B. Short. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. 

John F. Divine General Superintendent. 

Sol. Haas Traffic Manager. 

T. M. Emerson, Gen'l Freight and Passenger Agent. 

W. A. RiACH General Auditor. 

John R. Latta Assistant Auditor. 

James Knight. Master of Transportation. 

John Bisset Master of Machinery. 

Peter Laughlin Road Master Eastern Division. 

A. N. Freeland Road Master Western Division. 

E. F. Cason Store-Keeper. 

the CAROLINA CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

Tlie Wilmington, Charlotte & Rutherford Railroad was 
chartered February 13, 1855, and built 103 miles on the 
Eastern Division, and to Lincolnton, on the AVestern 
Division, before the war. It was sold April 10, 1873, and 
reorganized as the Carolina Central Railway Company, and 
completed to Charlotte and Shelby in the latter j^tart of 
1874, comprising a total distance of 242 miles. 

The Carolina Central Mailioay was sold May 31, 1880, 
and reorganized as the Carolina Central Rail ^oa*^ Com- 
pany July 14, 1880. 

It traverses the counties of New Hanover, Brunswick, 



WILMINGTON, NOETH CAEOLINA. 131 

Columbus, Bladen, Robeson, Richmond, Anson, Union, 
Mecklenburg, Gaston, Lincoln and Cleaveland — a section 
highly productive of Tarj)entine, Cotton, and other articles 
of export; the class and style of Cotton grown in Anson 
and Union counties being superior to that of any other 
section of the State. 
The Directors and Officers are as follows : 

DIRECTORS. 

J. S. Whedbee Baltimore. 

C. M. Stedman Wilmington. 

W. W. CiiAMBEKLAiNE Portsmouth. 

R. S. Tucker Raleigh, 

J. M. Robinson Baltimore. 

D. W. Oates Charlotte. 

J. C. Winder , , Raleigh. 

M. P. Leak Wadesboro. 

R. C. Hoffman Baltimore. 

J. L. Minis Baltimore. 

Severn Eyre Baltimore. 

OFFICERS. 

J. M. Robinson President. 

J. C. Winder Greneral Manager. 

L. C. Jones Superintendent. 

F. W. Clark General Freight and Passenger Agent. 

A. J. Howell Auditor. 

James Anderson Treasurer. 

W. H. Allen Master of Transportation. 

CLINTON AND POINT CASWELL RAILROAD. 

This is a railway projected from Point Caswell to Clinton, 
the county seat of Sampson, via Kerr's Landing and Har- 
rell's Store, connecting with the daily steamers from Point 
Caswell, on Black River, with Wilmington, 28 miles 
distant, for the purpose of bringing the produce of Pender 
and Sampson counties to this market. 



132 WILMINGTOI^r, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The Railroad was cliartered by our last Legislature, 
February 1883, capital stock $150,000, of wliicli $32,500 
has been subscribed. The charter requires that the Road 
shall be comj)leted within two years, and proposals are 
advertised for the work, which will begin at once. The 
ofiicers are as follows : 

F. W. Kerchner, President. 

E. W. Kerr, Vice-President. 

J. H. BoATWRiGHT, Secretary and Treasurer. 

J. D. O'Hanlan, Chief Engineer. 

THE DUPLIN CANAL COMPANY 

was chartered by the Legislature in 1874. In 1873 a project 
to direct the IN'orth East River (Cape Fear Branch) into a 
straight channel by a canal through Angola Pocosin, by 
way of Bannerman's, to the mouth of Goshen Swamp, and 
thereby draining 121,000 acres of overflowed and valuable 
land in Pender and Duiolin counties, was undertaken by 
Major Young, Engineer, resulting in the appointment by a 
number of Wilmington gentlemen of Mr. A. R. Black and 
Mr. W. L. Young as a Committee to make a careful survey 
of the route proposed and report upon its feasibility. 

THE DUPLIN canal. 

[Report of A. R. Black, Esq., in regard to the feasibility 
of the Enterprise.] 

Messrs. Edward Kidder and others : 

GrENTLEMEN : — About the 10th of November, in company 
with Major Wilton L. Young, I set about to make reconnois- 
sance of the Valley of the North East River, jDreparatory, as 
I understand, to locating a canal for shortening distances, 
improving the navigation and draining the swamp lands 
along and contiguous to the river ; also for the further pur- 
2)ose of collecting all the information I could as to the 
character of the country and its resources. 



WILMINGTOlSr, NORTH CAROLINA. 133 

In order to its being better understood, I found it neces- 
sary to prepare 

A MAP 

in connection with this report. 

The map has been carefully drawn, and is founded on 
the best information that could be obtained without an 
actual survey. 

The location of the river has been determined, generally, 
by certain known directions and distances between places 
on the river and railroad. The meanderings of the river 
were given by persons in the neighborhoods, who professed 
to be familiar with its curves, which are not fancy sketches, 
but are believed to approximate the truth. The contour of 
the country, and general quality of the lands, together with 
the growth of timber, when seen, are represented as they 
appeared, and when not seen, they are represented accord- 
ing to descriptions given by persons well acquainted with 
the country. 

The entire feasibility of constructing 

THE CANAL 

will readily suggest itself as soon as a glimpse is taken of 
the parallel red lines on the map, running from the mouth 
of Goshen, in a southerly direction, along the margin of 
the flat lands on the western side of the river to Fed's 
Landing, a distance of about sixteen miles ; thence across 
the river and down the swamp in a westerly direction one- 
half mile, to "Burton's old field ;" thence in a southerly 
direction across the main divide at "Burton's old field," 
to the mouth of Fishing Branch, about one mile ; thence 
in the same direction across the upper end of Gum Swamp 
and along the eastern margin of Angola Pocosin ; thence 
in the same direction across Holly Shelter Creek and North 
East River to Peggy's Island — an entire distance from the 
mouth of Goshen to Peggy's Island of about thirty-one 
miles.* 



♦Reported distance by the course of the river: Mouth of Goshen to Sarecta 20 
miles, thence to Hallsvi lie 16 miles, thence to Chinquepin 25 miles, thence to Bowses' 
16 miles, thence to Kafting Oak 15 miles, thence to Abe's Point 20 miles, thence to 
Bannerman's 9 miles, thence to Peggy's Island G miles— in all iU miles. 



134 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

No serious obstacles api^ear to be presented to tlie con- 
struction of the canal. I^early all the ground on which it 
is located, from the ''mouth of Goshen" to "Burton's 
old field," is overflowed in high freshets ; the i')ortions not 
overflowed being low islands, scarcely rising above the water. 
At "Burton's old field" there is a low divide, which, lam 
informed, diiring the recent September freshet, only lacked 
six or seven feet of being covered. From thence to Peggy' s 
Island the cutting will appear plain and simple. 

This route is taken only as a sample ; others may be 
selected equally practicable, and perhaps more so, when 
the test of instruments is applied. It appears that, in 
reality, there is not much room for a display of great skill 
in engineering. Almost any old woman can do the 
engineering. 

THE SWAMP LANDS 

to be affected by the drainage are extensive, and most of 
them very rich. This will also appear by an inspection of 
the map. I heard the remark repeated several times, by 
intelligent men in Duplin county, that the drainage of all 
the swamps in the county would be benefited by the canal, 
except two small streams west of the railroad, Stewart's 
Creek and Turkey Creek. I found the swamps more 
extensive and much richer than I expected. I have never 
seen better lands than those of Grum Swamp and Goshen 
Swamp, not to mention other bodies equally good. An 
abundance of marl is generally found underlying or con- 
tiguous to the swamps. The growth is principally black 
gum, sweet gum, cypress and ash, much of the cypress 
being very fine. I estimate that if the rich swamplands of 
Duplin county were laid down in one body, they would 
constitute a belt of swamp one mile wide by seventy miles 
long. If the grow^th of timber could be separated and laid 
down in different bodies, I think it would average nearly 
as follows: cypress would occupy about fifteen miles of 
the belt, black gum about the same, sweet gum about five 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 135 

miles, ash about five miles, poplar about two miles, maple 
two miles, spruce i)ine two miles, hickory two miles, birch 
one mile, and holly one mile. The map will show where 
bodies of timber may be found. 

THE UPLANDS 

have generally a clay subsoil. I think it would be safe to 
say that two-thirds of the land in Duplin county has a clay 
subsoil. Most of this land produces good crops, and is 
admirably adapted to improvement, and with the vast 
amount of muck and marl intersjDersed throughout the 
country, almost every foot of this land may be made rich. 
What a tidal wave of prosperity awaits Duplin county 
when her swamps can be reclaimed and her people become 
fully awakened to the wonderful agricultural advantages 
that surround them. 

When the Duplin Canal is constructed — and it can only 
be a question of time when this shall be done, for sooner or 
later this Canal surely will be constructed — Wilmington 
will be greatly benefited by it. This is no doubtful enter- 
prise for Wilmington. It will not turn the products of the 
country away from her, as some others have done, but as 
sure as water runs down stream, it wall jDour them into her 
lap. Cast your eye over the map and note the green chain 
marked "Trade Line." See what a scope of country it 
embraces. It sweeps along within fifteen miles of Golds- 
boro, within twelve miles of Kinston, and within twenty- 
five miles of New Berne. What a splendid country this 
is. This line marks out the section of country that is likely 
to trade with Wilmington when the Duplin Canal is com- 
pleted. All along the route of the Canal will be found, in 
Pender county, also, large bodies of excellent land. 

We now come to speak of 

"the pines! the STATELY, TOWERING PINES !" 

How shall we speak of them in terms sufficiently lauda- 
tory ? They have been the mainstay of the people of all 
this region for over a hundred years, and are still profitable. 



136 WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA, 

I am told that turpentine lands worked before the Revolu- 
tionary War, still continue to j^ield profitable crops. By 
the time one growth of pines is worked off another springs 
up. So that, for the production of turpentine, the forests 
are not likely to be exhausted. But it is not so for 

MILL TIMBER, 

Between the railroad and North East River most of the 
large timber has been cut off, but still, in some places, 
large bodies of excellent timber may be found, and a good 
deal of scattering timber throughout this region. Dr. 
Calhoun Hill informed me that there was a very fine body 
of heavy pines in the fork of Goshen and North East 
River, supposed to be ten or twelve thousand acres in 
extent. He also spoke of other fine bodies between these 
two streams. He informed me that there was a splendid 
body of white oak and ash, reaching for ten miles along 
Goshen Swamp, on the north side. Good timber was 
reported on the south side of Goshen, on Nahungar Creek, 
as also on Persimmon, on Maxwell, near the confluence of 
Elder and Stocking Head, and on both these streams, on 
the head waters of Grove, and on the back of Lochlin 
Pocosin. 

On the East side of North East River, between Cypress 
Creek and Moore's Creek, on the east and south sides, and 
Marl Swamp and Gum Swamp and the North East River, 
on the west and north, large bodies of excellent timber are 
reported, some of which I saw. 

On the east side of Cypress Creek, and along the east side 
of the North East Rivei*, after leaving the streams two to 
four miles, excellent forests of large timber are reported. 
I saw the borders of some of these forests, which were very 
fine. V^ast quantities of lightwood, suitable for the manu- 
facture of tan may be found throughout all the region east 
of the North East River, also between Goshen and the 
North East River. 

We found the people everywhere on our journey very 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 137 

anxious for the Canal. They fully comprehend its impor- 
tance to them. Its accomplishment is looked forward to 
as the dawn of the good time to come ; and verily it will 
be so if it enables them to reclaim their swamp lands. The 
people were everywhere hospitable and obliging — anxious 
and willing to furnish any information in their power. We 
are greatly indebted to them for many favors, and shall 
always retain very pleasant recollections of our Canal 
explorations. 

In conclusion, and not to repeat what has already been 
said, by way of summary, we recommend to the very 
favorable consideration of Messrs. Kidder and others, the 
construction of the " Duplin Canal." 
I am, gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. K. BLACK," 

ESTI3IATE OF ACREAGE OF SWAMPS IN DUPLIN COUNTY. 

Island Creek 1,200 

Lochlin Pocosin 5,000 

Cypress Creek and tributaries ,...., 1,600 

Muddy Creek 1,000 

Maxwell Swamp and tributaries 5,000 

Big and Little Limestoneand tributaries , 3,000 

Grove Swamp 1,500 

Persimmon 500 

Dark Branch 300 

Hell Swamp GOO 

Goshen Swamp and tributaries — 12,000 

Burnt CoatCreek.. , 500 

Wildcat Creek 500 

Great Branch 400 

Green Swamp and part of Gum Swamp, in Duplin county 5,000 

Back Swamp 3,000 

North East River, in Duplin , 10,000 

Total acreage in Duplin 51,000 

Dr. Blount, of Kenansville, aided me in .this estimate. 
I estimate the swamps of Pender county at about 20,000 
acres. A. R. B." 



138 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

I am indebted to that patient and indefatigable Engineer. 
Major W. L. Young, for tlie following statement with 
reference to this work np to the present time. 25th March : 

"Mr. Black's report only refers to overflowed lands 
belonging to individuals, viz: 51,000 acres in Duplin, and 
20,000 acres in Pender county — making in all 71,000 acres. 

There would also be reclaimed 50,000 acres of State land 
lying in the counties of Pender and Duplin— making in all, 
both private and public lands, 121,000 acres that would be 
reclaimed from overflow by the canal. 

It is more than probable that in all the Southern States 
there is not another locality where there is such an enor- 
mous amount of overflowed land which could be reclaimed 
by the cutting of a canal of only 30 miles in length. 

The xoracticability of the result is made plain when the 
fact is taken into consideration, that the Northeast river 
has not only a very tortuous channel, but also makes enor- 
mous bends which environ great bodies of land, and which 
are overflowed during freshets, and which, also, submerge 
all the tributary swamps. 

Owing to this peculiar formation of the river, rafts and 
freshets are actually seven days in passing down the river 
from the mouth of Goshen to Bannerman's, which by the 
route of the canal, is only 30 miles, while by the river it is 
140 miles ; whereas, if the canal was constructed, and the 
river diverted to this new channel, the water flow would 
be reduced from seven days to ten hours ; and freshets 
would be a thing of the past. 

As a means of navigation, tliis canal would be of much 
importance to the great triangle or section of country lying 
betwen the coast and the Wilmington & Weldon Railway, 
south of the Neuse and Pamlico Sound, and also to the 
isolated p)ortions of Pender, Onslow, Duplin, Wayne, 
Lenoir and Jones. 

The sluice way has been cut and the timber removed 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 139 

more or less for tlie distance of six miles, and a dam — 
perhaps the largest structure of the kind in eastern North 
Carolina — 442 feet long, has been constructed across Shelter 
Creek. This dam, when repaired at one point, will be 
capable of holding 14 feet head of water, which can be 
thrown at will into the sluiceway of the canal at various 
points, thus forcing the water of Shelter Creek to seek the 
new and direct channel of the canal. 

The northern terminus of the canal is within two miles of 
a natural fall of 17 feet. When this fall is reached, an outlet 
will be given for a great basin of over-flowed land that is 
ten miles long and from three to four miles wide, that would 
be reclaimed as the work progressed. And further, as soon 
as this fall is gained, and the upper section of five miles of 
the canal is sluiced out so as to be navigable for barges, 
the Company would receive, without further extension of 
the work, annually, the "tolls" on 30,000 or 40,000 barrels 
of naval stores, and upon timber and lumber. It should 
be remembered that all this is before the river is reached 
at the flrst crossing by the canal." 

The officers of the company are as follows : 

Wm. Larkins, President. 

W. T. Bannerman, Vice-President. 

J. H. BoATWRiGiiT, Treasurer. 

David Farrior, Pay Master. 

W. L. Young, Saperintendent and Engineer. 

inland water-way. 

I am also informed by Major Young, that in the year 
1874 a charter was granted by our State Legislature, for 
an inland canal from the South Carolina line to Virginia. 
The scheme proposed is to avoid the dangers of Hatteras, by 
connecting the North East Cape Fear River and Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

A survey of this route was made by the United States 



140 WILMINGTON", NORTH CAIIOLINA. 

Government in 1875, and it was ascertained to be practica- 
ble, and that by utilizing the 47 miles of the navigable river 
of the IS'orth East and other intermediate streams, it would 
only require about 40 miles of canal to connect Wilmington 
with Pamlico Sound and all the other inland water system 
of ]?forth Carolina — Croatan and Albemarle Sounds, the 
Neuse, Tar, Roanoke and Chowan rivers, and also with 
Norfolk and Baltimore, by the way of the Dismal Swamp 
and Albemarle canals. 

It has further been ascertained, in connection with this 
scheme, that it only requires four miles of canal at Oak 
Island, and five miles between Little River and AVaccaraaw 
River, to connect the Cape Fear, Waccamaw, Pee Dee and 
Santee rivers by an inland water route — thus connecting 
Wilmington with Georgetown. 

THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF WILMINGTON, 

Was organized July 6, 1866— the capital stock is 

$250,000. 

dikectoes. 

David G. Worth, George Chadbourn, 

James Sprunt, Edwin E. Burruss, 

Alfred Martin. 

officers. 

E. E. Burruss, President. 

A. K. Walker, Cashier. 

The following statement of Resources and Liabilities, on 
December 23rd, 1882, shows the condition of its affairs at 
that date : 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 141 

Statement of the Condition of the First National Bank of Wilmington, 
N. C, December 23rd, 1882. 



RESOURCES : 

Loans and Discounts 8 613,642 31 

U. S. Bonds to secure Circulation 50,000 00 

Other Stocks, Bonds and Mortgages 75,111 60 

Due from Banks and Bankers 103,246 70 

Current Expenses "8,446 71 

Cash on Hand 85,610 99 

Real Estate and Furniture and Fixtures 70,327 22 

$1,012,385 53 

LIABILITIES : 

Capital Stock $ 250,000 00 

Circulation 44,990 00 

Surplus Fund 37,160 19 

Undivided Profits 59,351 29 

Due Individual Depositors 591,037 05 

Due Banks and Bankers 29,847 00 



11,012,885 53 



BANK OF NEW HANOVER. 

This organization was effected January 12th, 1872 — the 
capital stock is $300,000. 

The following statement of its condition was published 
February 1st, 1883 : 

Statement of Condition of Bank of New Hanover, including Branches, 
February ist, 1883. 



RESOURCES: 

Loans and Discounts -. $ 795,594 51 

Casli in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore Banks.f 98,624 53 

Currency and Specie .' 210,903 30 

Checks on other Banks 6,527 78— 316,055 67 

Due from other Banks not included above 88,648 51 

Sterling Exchange (value in Currency) 5,148 14 

Real Estate 89,099 24 

Office Furniture and Safes 7,082 37 

Bonds and Stocks 2(,252 44 

Checks and Drafts in Transit 14,445 97 

$1,340.326 85 

LIABILITIES: 

Capital Stock « 300,000 00 

Due Depositors 915,296 32 

Due other Banks 52,052 17 

Surplus Fund 72,978 36 



$1,340,326 85 



142 WILMINGTON. NOKTII CAEOLINA. 

Statemeut of Couditloix of Bank at AVllmlugton, February 1st, 1883. 



RESOURCES: 
Loans and Discounts SC33,062 62 

Cash In New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore Banks.? 83,639 10 

Currency and Specie 127,256 76 

Checks on other Banks „ 6,527 78— 217,423 61 

Due from other Banks not included above 53,908 58 

Sterling Exchange (value in Currency) 5,148 14 

Real Estate 83,604 18 

Office Furniture and Safes 3,843 66 

Bonds and Stocks 7,723 'J4 

»1,004,714 76 
LIABILITIES ! - 

Capital Stock $ 225,000 00 

Due Depositors 616,926 07 

Due other Banks 49,025 64 

Due other Branches of this Bank 78,043 73 

Surplus Fund 35,719 32 

81,004,714 76 

Statement of Condltlou of Bank at Goldsboro, February 1st, 1883> 

RESOURCES : 
Loans and Discounts 8119,118 19 

Cash in New York and Baltimore Banks $ 8,936 48 

Clirrency and Specie 52,835 47— 61,771 93 

Due from other Banks not included above 32,959 53 

Due from other Branches of this Bank 23,764 05 

Real Estate 5,495 06 

Office Furniture and Safes 1,877 il 

Wilmington & Weldon R. R., Mortgage Bonds 16,528 50 

8261,514 47 

LIABILITIES : ^== 

Capital Stock 8 50,000 00 

Due Depositors „ 178,389 72 

Due other Banks 2,€10 82 

Surplus Fund 30,513 93 

'_ 82 61,514 47 

l^tatemeut of Condition of Bank at AVadesboro, February 1st, 1883. 

RESOURCES : 
Loans and Discounts $ 43,413 70 

Clash in New York Banks 8 0,048 07 

Currency and Specie 30,811 13— 36,860 10 

Due from other Banks not included above 1,780 40 

Due from'^other Branches of this Bank 68,725 65 

Office Furniture and Safes < 1,361 50 

8152,141 35 
LIABILITIES ! • 

Capital Stock 8 25,000 00 

t)ue Depositors 119,980 53 

Due other Banks 415 71 

Surplus Fund 6,745 11 

8152,141 35 



WILMINGTOIS^, NORTH CAROLINA. 143 

Its officers are as follows : 

Isaac Bates, President. 

G. W. Williams, Vice President. 

S. J). Wallace, . Cashier. 

DIRECTORS. 

R. R. Bridgers, W. I. Gore, 

I. Bates, E. B. Borden, 

C. M. Stedman, Jas. a. Leak, 

G. W. Williams, J. W. Atkinson, 

H. VoLLERS, D. McRae, 

F. Rheinstein. 

COTTON COMPRESSES. 

The first Cotton Compress operated in this city was 
established by the Confederate Government during the war, 
in 1864. It was located on the west side of the river, just 
south of the Brunswick Ferry, and was under the entire 
control and supervision of the Government, and used for 
compressing cotton for running the blockade. 

Its capacity was from 450 to 500 bales a da}^ It was set 
lire to and totally destroyed, together with a large amount 
of other property, by order of Gen. Bragg, on the evening 
of February 21st, 1865, the eve of the evacuation of the 
town by the Confederate forces. It was brought to this 
place from Charleston, the port of Wilmington being the 
only one at that time where the business of blockade-run- 
ning was carried on. 

Wilmington has now three first class Cotton Compresses 
in successful operation, viz : The Wilmington Compress 
Comi^any, (2 presses), of which George W. Williams is 
President, and George Sloan Secretary and Treasurer ; and 
the Champion Compress Company, (1 press), E. J. Penny- 
packer, President, and T. B. Harriss, Secretary and Treas- 
urer. They are stock companies, the former with a capital 
of $85,000, and the latter $70,000. The first was organized 



144 WILMING*rON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

during the summer of 1875. Valuable wharf property was 
purchased near what was known in the early history of 
the town as "Paradise," in the northern portion of the 
city, and adjoining the terminus of the Carolina Central 
Railroad, — on which were erected the latest improved 
cotton presses, a Taylor Steam and Hydraulic Press and a 
Tyler Steam press, and extensive warehouses for the 
storage of cotton. The increase of business within two 
years after its erection, warranted the establishment of an 
additional press, and during the summer of 1879, the 
Champion Compress and Warehouse Company was organ- 
ized. The wharf property at the foot of lied Cross street, 
and adjoining the depot of the Wilmington, Columbia & 
Augusta, and the Wilmington & Weldon Railroads, was 
purchased, on which was erected the "Morse" Cotton 
Compress, with brick warehouses and sheds, together with 
the largest guano warehouse in the State— located on tlie 
west side of the river. 

The estimated pressure is about 1,500 tons, and the 
capacity of each press is about 50 bales an hour. Both 
companies are kept actively engaged during the cotton 
season, in compressing cotton for foreign shipment, and 
business has steadily increased from 15,000 bales the first 
year to about 100,000 bales during the last cotton season. It 
is a business that has increased each succeeding year since its 
commencement, and when the advantages offered to shi])- 
pers at this port become generally known, it must assume 
larger proportions. 

The facilities for handling cotton cheaply here, are not 
surpassed, if equaled, by any other Southern port. The 
railroads centering at this point, deliver cotton at the 
different presses ; there is ample room at the wharves of 
the companies, and sufficient depth of w\ater for the largest 
sized vessels that visit this port, to load without the least 
difficulty, thereby saving the expense, wliich is very heavy 
at other ports, of drayaga and lighterage, which of course 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 145 

have to be borne by the shipper, and which aggregates a 
very large amount. 

The port charges are less than at other points, and the 
expenses generally are more moderate. 

Quick dispatch is given, for the presses are run day and 
night when necessary, and delays seldom occur, unless 
from some unavoidable accident. When we take into 
consideration the improved character of these presses, their 
capacity for doing well the work which is required, the 
fact that cotton is handled cheaper here than at other 
places, and the expenses in every way much lighter to the 
shipper, we certainly have reason to anticipate a largely 
increased business to our city from the success of this 
important industry. 

WILMINGTON COTTON MILLS. 

These mills were built in 1874, at an original cost of 
$150,000, and reorganized in 1878, with a reduced capital 
of $60,000. 

The list of officers is as follows : 

Donald MacEae, President. 

Wm. a. French, Vice President. 

W. G. MacRae, Treasurer and Superintendent. 

directors. 

Edward Kidder, F. W. Kerciiner, 

Jas. H. Ciiadbourn, B. G. Worth. 

John Wilder Atkinson. 

The Machinery is 100 horse power (steam); and the fuel 
— wood and sawdust. 

There are in operation 156 looms, 5,712 spindles, 34 cards, 
7 fine spuders, 4 slubbers, and 1 picker and opener. 

The goods manufactured are Print Cloths and Batting ; 
and during the past year, the mill has turned out 168,000 
yards per month, or say, 2,016,000 yards per year,— part 



146 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

of which is sold for home consumption, but the i3roduct is 
principally sold to calico printers in Philadelphia and New 
York. 

The mill employs 3 superintendents of departments, 
12 men, 15 boys, 80 women and 20 girls, — total, 130. The 
cost of production of goods and pay of operatives is about 
the same as at Fall River and other manufacturing places 
North. 

The number of bales of cotton used is 780 per annum, 
costing $40,000, and value of goods manufactured per year, 
$80,000 to $100,000. 

THE NAVASSA GUANO COMPANY, OF WILMINGTON 

was established in 1869, with a capital stock of $200,000. 
The following named comprise the officers : 

R. R. Bridgers, President. 

Donald MacRae, Secretar}^ and Treasurer. 

C. L. Grafflin, Superintendent. 

The works are situated at Meares' Bluff, Brunswick 
county, N. C, about 4 miles from Wilmington, and manu- 
facture annually 18,000 tons of "Navassa Gruano" and Acid 
Phosphate. 

There are in operation two Suli^huric Acid, and one 
Muriatic Acid chambers, of a capacity of 240,000 cubic 
feet. 

About 100 workmen are emj^loyed. 

The power (steam) used is 150 horse, and fuel, — wood. 

The value of product is 1450,000 annually. 

The company owns and works a valuable rice plantation 
of about 300 acres, situated about a mile below the factory, 
and which produces about 12,000 bushels of rice yearlj^ 

THE SOUTHERN ORE COMPANY. 

This is a new industry, recently established in Wilming- 
ton, and the only one of the kind in North Carolina. It is 
located on South Water street, at the foot of Ann street. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 147 

It is an incorporated Company, and was organized on 
February 1st, 1883, with a capital of $50,000, with power 
to increase to $500,000. 

A local Board of three resident Directors manage the 
affairs of the corporation. 

Its business is the purchase and reduction of all minerals 
that contain the precious metals, such as gold and silver, 
and also ores containing copper, zinc, lead, etc. 

The ores are purchased at different points within the 
State, and shipped to this place by rail, and by a peculiar 
process, the details of which are not made public, the pre- 
cious metals are extracted. The prices offered by the 
Company for ores have already resulted in engagements for, 
it is thought, a sufficient supply to keep the works em- 
ployed, and the enterprise is of course materially helping 
to develop) the mineral resources of the State. 

Mr. J. Beno, of New York, is the j)rojector of this 
scheme. 

TOBACCO FACTORY. 

Wilmington is the only point east of Raleigh where a 
Tobticco Factory is in successful operation. The Cape 
Fear Tobacco Works were established here in the spring of 
1879, and are now located on Bladen street, near the 
Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, on the site formerly 
known as Camp Lamb. The proprietors are Messrs. 
Meadows and Kidder. The capacity of the works is about 
500,000 pounds annually, making plug, twist and smoking 
tobacco, and the quality of the goods turned out will com- 
pare favorably with other factories in the State. The leaf 
used, is obtained principally from Granville county, and the 
counties adjoining, long celebrated for their fine quality of 
tobacco ; and the standard of goods manufactured at the 
Factory is never allowed to deteriorate. About sixty hands 
are employed, and the demand for their goods here and in 
the surrounding country is increasing. The engine is about 



148 WILMINGTON", NORTH CAEOLINA. 

ten-liorse power, with a fifteen -horse power boile-r, and the 
machinery, of the most approved kind. 

THE CAROLINA RICE MILLS. 

In 1881 the increasing rice crop along the Caj)e Fear and 
in the up country induced Messrs. Norwood Giles and 
Pembroke Jones, of AVilmington, to venture uj)on the 
establishment, at great expense and considerable risk, of a 
first-class Kice Mill, which was completed the year follow- 
ing, and which will compare favorably with any mill in the 
country. These enterprising young men have not only 
brought energy and capital to this important undertaking, 
but a degree of intelligence and sound business judgment 
which is bound to make them successful. Already the 
product of the Carolina Mills has attracted attention in 
New York and in Liverpool, and pronounced by competent 
and recognized authority, the best milled rice in the South. 
They have a capacity of double the present crop, and they 
are increasing their facilities constantly to meet every 
requirement of the trade. 

The Mills are of brick, lOG feet long, 43 feet wide, and 
four stories in height. Pitch of floors 14 feet. An engine 
room connected with the Mill is 18 feet wide and one story 
high. The engine is 45-liorse power, and the capacity of 
the Mill is 1,800 to 2,000 bushels per twenty-four hours. 
There are 18 patent Brotherhood pestles on the first floor, 
and the spouting necessary for turning out the clean rice. 
On the second floor are all the receiving bins for ground 
and beat rice, and also the stones. On the third floor stands 
two large brushes for polishing and the necessary fans and 
screens. The fourth floor is entirel}^ devoted to machinery 
for cleaning the rice before going to mill. 

The elevators are many in number and wonderfully assist 
in liandling the grain. The number of people employed is 
13. The storage capacity of the warehouse is 75,000 
bushels. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 149 

GRAIN MILLS. 

There are four grain mills in successful operation in Wil- 
mington at this time, two of which are also flouring mills, 
viz : Messrs. B. F. Mitchell & Son, on North Water street, 
between Market and Princess streets, and the Cape Fear 
Flouring Mills, now carried on by Mr. C. B. Wright. The 
former was originally established by Ellis & Mitchell in 
the year 1849, and continued under that firm name until 
1866, when Mr. Ellis retired. He was succeeded in the 
firm by Mr. Huggins, and the business was conducted 
under the name of Mitchell & Huggins, until 1871, when 
Mr. Huggins died. Since that time it has been B. F. 
Mitchell & Son. 

The power used is 76 horse, with four run of stones 
capable of turning out 450 bushels of meal, and 20 barrels 
of flour per day. It is the only mill in the State in which 
there is a purifier for purifying the middlings ; and it has 
besides, all the modern improvements and conveniences. 

THE CAPE EEAR FLOUR MILLS, C. B. WRIGHT, PROPRIETOR. 

This mill is located at the foot of Walnut, corner of 
North Water street. It was first built in 1855, on the lot 
directly opposite its present location, but was destroyed 
by fire in 1866, and then built upon its present site. It has 
a power of 85 horse, capable of turning out from 500 to 600 
bushels of meal, and 20 barrels of flour a day, runs three 
stones on wheat and corn, and three on hominy. In 1868, 
the proprietor, Mr Alex. Oldham, bought the patent for 
the State for making pearl hominy, and it is the only mill 
in North Carolina that has the right and is engaged in 
manufacturing that article. 

/Our flour mills cannot compete successfully with the 
Western mills, on account of the tariff of freights. Flour 
is handled at a much cheaper rate than wheat, which 
operates greatly to the disadvantage of our mills. The 
quality is as good as that made anywhere, and compares 



150 WILMINGTON, nSTOETII CAROLINA. 

favorably with the best brought to this market from other 
points. 

Messrs. Preston Camming & Co.'s mil], located at the 
foot of Dock street, and Mr. W. P. Oldham's, on the 
south side of Dock street, are grain mills alone. The first 
was established in 1869, has two sets of runners, uses 40 
horse power, and is capable of turning out about 400 
bushels of meal a day, 

Mr. W. P. Oldham's mill was erected in 1875, has two 
sets of runners, 35 horse power, and a capacity of 350 
bushels of meal a day. 

These grain mills are complete in every way ; advantage 
is immediately taken of any improvements in machinery 
or otherwise to add to their efficiency, and they are man- 
aged with the skill and energy which generally commands 
success. 

THE ACME MANUFACTURING .COMPANY. 

In a communication from Messrs. Cronly & Morris, 
Agents of the above-named Company, with reference to its 
origin and endeavor, and in response to my request for 
information, I learn that "Cronly," on the Carolina 
Central Railroad, is the site of its operations, and that 
some months ago ihe proprietors in Wilmington, Messrs. 
Latimer and others, entered into negotiations for the estab- 
lishment of a fertilizer manufactory on the tract of land 
owned by Cronly & Morris at Livingston Creek, on the 
Carolina Central Railroad. Pending these negotiations 
last spring, their attention was called to a patent device 
for curling vegetable fibres for upholstering purposes 
in imitation of horse-hair, and a rubbing machine for 
the treatment of fibrous plants and materinl. As in the 
treatment of the fibres, chemicals were used which were 
valuable fertilizing agents, they attempted to obtain control 
of these processes, wdth a view either to consolidation with 
the fertilizer factory, or to operate both to mutual 
advantage. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 151 

After a thorough examinution of the two schemes, they 
became convinced of their value, and finally completed 
negotiations for the establishment of the enterprise. 

For more than a year, attention had been directed to the 
manufacture of cotton-seed oil, and enquiries instituted 
with reference to the process ; and although convinced of 
its practicability, the excessively high prices demanded by 
manufacturers of the necessary machinery, and the neces- 
sity of convincing the planters of the advantage to them 
by selling their cotton-seed, and receiving in return cotton- 
seed meal, possessing greater fertilizing properties than the 
seed itself, deterred them from the undertaking. Subse- 
quently attention was called to an article of Mr. Edward 
Atkinson, of Boston, the cotton statistician, on the produc- 
tion of cot ton -seed oil, in which he characterized as 
extremely wasteful and thriftless, the present method of 
obtaining the oil, and strongly advised the adoption of a 
process recommended by him whereby the oil was obtained 
by certain chemical reaction. Full enquiries were made 
into his process, and being satisfied that the oil could be 
so obtained, and at a much smaller cost for the plant and 
for working than by the present method, they entered into 
an arrangement for the establishment of a factory, with 
Dr. L. U. Friedburg of New York, an expert -chemist, who 
had been most highly recommended by Dr. C. F. Chandler, 
President of the Board of Health of New York City, and 
Dean of the Faculty of the School of Mines of Columbia 
College. 

A short time ago, they efiEected a consolidation of the 
three enterprises, which under this arrangement can be 
conducted in a much more economical manner, and with 
greater assurance of success. The Legislature has incor- 
porated the joint enterprises under the name of the Acme 
Manufacturing Company. 

The capital of the Company will be $152,000, all of 
which is subscribed. The location of the Factories is particu- 



152 . WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

larly desirable, having water communication witli tlieiiver 
by Livingston Creek, and being situated on tlie Carolina 
Central Railroad, at a distance of about a mile and a 
quarter from the Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta Rail- 
road with which they expect to connect the Factories by 
private or public railway, and thus obtain greater facil- 
ities for shipment of the manufactured product. 

The beds of marl and phosphate rock are adjacent to the 
Factory sites. Dr. Ledoux, who analyzed the marl, showed 
it to be valuable, which is verified by subsequent analyses 
made by him, and published in his report for 1880, giving 
to one of the marls over 51 per cent, of phosphate lime, 
and to another 27 per cent, of phosphoric acid. The results 
of analyses of several other marls from the same locality, 
though much lower than the above, showed them to be 
valuable as fertilizers. 

A fibre factory 100x150x48 has already been built at 
"Cronly," and all the machinery for it has been received, 
and is now being put up. This factory will manufacture 
fibre from the long-leaved pine-straw for upholstering pur- 
poses (turning out about ten tons per week), oil from the 
pine leaf, and fibres from j)almetto, bear, and other grasses, 
and material from West Indies and Bahama Islands. 

The Fertilizer Factory will produce a first-class fertilizer, 
and also place within reach of our farmers prepared marl. 
Its capacity at first will be about 5,000 tons per annum. 

The Cotton-Seed Oil Factory will, during the cotton sea- 
son, manufacture cotton-seed oil and cake, and, during the 
summer months, oil and cake from peanuts, palm kernels, 
linseed, flax-seed, or any other oil-yielding substance which 
they can obtain, either in this country or abroad. 

In connection with the fibre factory, they expect to make 
bagging for the fertilizer and for sale, and eventually from 
the coarser fibres which abound in our section, to make 
barrels from paper pulp for the oils. 

Mr. John G. Stephens of New York, the patentee of fibre 



WILMINGTON, KOKTII CAROLINA. 158 

processes will have charge of the fibre factory as Super- 
intendent, and Dr. L. H. Friedburg, assisted by Mr. Thos. 
Radcliffe, will have charge as Superintendent and Chemist 
of the fertilizer and oil mills. 

About 70 tons of machinery have been received, and 
about 30 tons more are expected. 

The fertilizer and oil mills of the same size as the fibre 
factory are now in course of erection, also houses and a 
store for the use of operatives. The fibre factory will be 
ready for operation about April 1st, and the oil and fer- 
tilizer mills about May 1st. 

The principal stockholders of the new Company are the 
Messrs. Latimer, Messrs. Cronly & Morris, Messrs. Chas. 
V. Ware and G. W. Warren, of New York, Mr. J. G. 
Stephens and Dr. L. H. Friedburg. 

TURPENTINE DISTILLERIES. 

The following comprises the Tur^Dentine Distilleries 
operated in Wilmington : 



NAME. NO. 


OF STILLS. 




CAPAC 


!ITY PER DAY. 


"Empire," 


^, 


400 barrels 


crude 


tu 


rpentine. 


Morton & Hall, 


4. 


250 










"^tna," 


2, 


100 










"Point Peter," 


3, 


150 










VClay," 


3, 


160 










Mahn' s. 


1, 


75 










"Union," 


4, 


250 










Bowdens, 


3, 


160 








* 



Total, 27, 1,545 " " " 

There are in addition 2 rosin oil stills, operated as a part 
of Clay Distillery, the product of which also comprises; 

Rosin Oil, 4 grades ; Rosin Oil Naptha, crude and recti- 
fied ; Tar Oil ; Spirits of Tar, crude and rectified ; Metalic 
Paint Oils ; Deck and Spar Oils, for the preservation of the 
decks and spars of vessels, and all wood not covered with 



154 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA 



j)aint, against the action of tlie weather, and of dry- 
rot ; Bright and Black Varnishes ; Venice Turpentine, for 
printer's ink; Navy, or Shipbuilder's Pitch; Shoe- 
maker's Wax Pitch ; Brush Maker's Pitch ; Brewer's 
Pitch. 

The Carolina Oil Company also oi^erates 3 stills, the 
product of which is 20 barrels of oil per week. They also 
manufacture Tar Oil and Pine Wood Creosote Oil. 

WILMINGTON GAS LIGHT COMPANY. 

This company was chartered January 27th, 1851, and 
organized February, 1855. 

Its capital stock is 1100,000. 

The Works are located on the corner of Surry and Castle 
streets. 

Capacity of holders, 40,000 cubic feet of gas; process of 
manufacture, wood and rosin ; price of gas per 1,000 cubic 
feet, $2.50 ; public lamps, 124.00 per year for each lamp ; 
length of mains, about 9|- miles. 

board of directors. 

Edward Kidder, Donald McRae, 

Gi:oRGE E. French, Dr. A, J. DeRosset, 

Wm. H. McRary, E. S. Martin, 

R. J. Jones. 

officers. 

Edward Kidder, President. 

Richard J. Jones, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Jno. W. Reilly, Superintendent. 

CLARENDON WATER WORKS COMPANY. 

This Company was organized April 10, 1881 ; the Works 
were completed the following autumn, and began supply- 
ing water in December, 1881. The hydrant service was 
accepted by the city in January, 1882. 



WILMIISrGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 155 

It has about 12i miles of main pipes from 4 to 12 inches 
in diameter, and about li miles of service pipes and small 
mains f of an inch to 2 inches in diameter. 

There are 105 public fire hydrants and 260 consumers. 
The present daily consumption is upwards of 100,000 

gallons. 

The Company uses what is known as the combined stand- 
pipe and direct pressure system. The water is pumped into 
the stand-pipe for ordinary use, but in case of fire, it is 
pumped directly into the mains, the pressure being in- 
creased as the exigencies of the case demand. 

The stand-pipe is 20 feet in diameter and 90 feet high, 
which gives a domestic pressure of from 25 to 50 pounds 
per square inch. The fire pressure is usually 100 pounds 
per square inch. The capacity of the stand-pipe is 210,000 
gallons. 

These Works have two Worthington Duplex Pumping 
Engines— one high pressure of 500,000 gallons daily 
capacity, and the other a compound non-condensing engine, 
of 1,000,000 gallons daily capacity. This can be increased 
about 25 per cent, if necessary. 

The capital stock is $50,000. 

The Works cost about $150,000, the balance being rep- 
resented by bonds. 

DIRECTORS : 

E. E. BuRRUss, H. A. Burr, 

F. W. Kerciiner, J. F. Divine, 
Edward Kidder, D. Q. Worth. 

officers : 

J. F. Divine President. 

Edward Kidder Secretary and Treasurer. 

J. C. Chase Superintendent. 

RATES : 

" The following rates will be charged annually for the use of water, 
to be collected quarterly in advance : 
Dwelling houses occupied by one family of not exceeding five 

persons, for the first faucet $f» ^0 



156 WILMINGTON", NORTH CAROLINA. 

For each additional faucet ,, $2 00 

For tlae first bath-tub 4 00 

For each additional bath-tub 2 00 

For the first water-closet 4 00 

For each additional closet '. 2 00 

For tlie first urinal 2 00 

For each additional urinal 1 00 

For each additional person in the family, exceeding five, ten per 
cent, of the above rates. 

Water-closets and urinals without self-closing valves, double the 
above rates. 

Where hot and cold water faucets discharge into one vessel, but one 
charge will be made for both. 

For each additional family using the same fixtures, 75 per cent, of 
the above rates. 

Stores, warehouses, offices, shops, etc., requiring no more than the 
ordinary supply of water, the same i^rice for fixtures as dwelling 
houses. 

Stables.— For the first horse |3 00 

For each additional horse 2 00 

For each cow 2 00 

The above rate includes the use of water for washing carriages, etc., 
without hose. Where hose is used in any stable an extra charge will 
be made for each horse of $2 00. 
Use of hose for sprinkling streets, gardens, etc., per thousand 

square feet $1 00 

Provided that the amount charged for the use of hose shall be in no 
case less than five dollars per annum, and that one-half of the annual 
rate will be collected April 1st, and the balance July 1st. 

Meter rates, per 100 cubic feet 15 cents. 

(20 cents per 1,000 gallons.) 

Provided, however, that in no case where a meter is used by request 
of the consumer, shall the annual charge be less than ten dollars. 

When the quantity used exceeds 15,003 cubic feet per month, special 
rates will be made." 

OAKDALE CEMETERY COMPANY, 

The charter for this Corporation was granted on the 27th 
day of December, 1852, the company was organized on the 
IGth of November, 1853, and the grounds were opened, and 
the first interment made on the 6th of February, 1855. 
The necessity for the formation of this corporation grew 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 157 

out of the fact that the old time-honored custom of inter- 
ments within the city church-yards was fast giving way, in 
other places, to the Cemetery system of burials, and a few 
public-spirited gentlemen of Wilmington suggested the 
location of a central Cemetery, "to be universally adopted 
as a substitute for the old grave-yards then in use,"' Acting 
upon this suggestion, the grounds just east of the "Old 
Burnt Mill Creek," containing 60 acres, were purchased 
and named "Oakdale," and dedicated to the preservation 
and continued protection of our dead. 

Of the fifteen gentlemen named in the charter of this 
corporation, one now resides in California, one in Con- 
necticut, two in other counties of this State ; six are still 
actively engaged in their business vocations in this city, 
and the other five have passed over the river, while their 
remains "rest under the shade of the trees" in "Oakdale." 

All revenue, from whatever source it may be derived, is 
devoted to the maintenance of the grounds. 

Up to the present time, about one third, or probably 
one-half, of the grounds have been improved and formed 
into sections, and sections into lots, — each lot containing 
four hundred square feet. The sections vary in size to suit 
the conformation of the grounds, as follows : 

Section A has 4 lots ; section B has 151 lots ; section C 
has 23 lots ; section D has 110 lots ; section E has 42 lots ; 
section F has 70 lots ; section G has 25 lots ; section H has 
124 lots ; section J has 87 lots ; while the last section, K, 
which has been opened, contains 150 lots, without including 
the plot donated to the Ladies' Memorial Association, for 
the Confederate dead, to which 453 bodies were removed 
and buried in two semi-circular graves, and upon which 
stands the most beautiful monument erected to the Con- 
federate dead in the South. 

Owing to the loss of some of the records during the war, 
as well as to the confusion growing out of that terrible 
epidemic of 1862, the yellow fever, which carried hundreds 



158 WILMINGTO:^^, NORTH CAROLINA^ 

to their graves, including both the Secretary and Superin- 
tendent of this company, the present Secretary, Mr. R. J. 
Jones, says : 

"I cannot give a correct list of the interments since the 
opening of the grounds. My records, commencing Febru- 
ary 4th, 1867, show 1,825 for the past sixteen years, or up 
to the lirst of January, 1883 ; and it is but fair to presume 
that with the casualties of the war and yellow fever com- 
bined, there were at least 2,000 buried before my record 
commences." 

The present managers are : 

Donald MacRae, President. 

TnroTHY DoNLAN, Superintendent. 

Richard J. Jones, Secretary and Treasurer. 

directors. 

.Edward Kidder, W. H. Northrop, 

Wm. J. Yopp, George R. French, 

James H. Chadbouijn, Dr. A. J. DeRosset, 



I have thought that it would be appropriate, and perhaps 
a matter of interest to some, to recall the names of a few of 
our prominent citizens who now sleep in Oakdale Cemetery, 
and many of whom were distinguished in our annals, for 
wealth, intelligence and virtue. The old graveyard adjoin- 
ing St. James' Church was for many, many years the 
common receptacle of the dead of the town, and within its 
walls, the ashes of more than one of our distinguished 
citizens still repose. It is now almost deserted, but one 
can learn a lesson of the vanity of life from the still remain- 
ing records of those, who, "after life's fitful fever, sleep 
well," within its hallowed precincts. 

In August, 1708, Thomas Godfrey, son of the inventor of 



\vilmingto:n^, noktii Carolina. 159 

the Quadrant, and tlie author of the tirst dramatic work 
written in America, died and was buried in that old church- 
yard. He was but twenty-seven years old. His grave is 
undistinguishable from those of the numerous congregation 
of the dead who sleep around him, for time has long since 
levelled the incumbent sod, and no stone was erected to 
mark the spot where his ashes repose. The memorials of 
him are few. He was born in Philadelphia, and when 
grown to manhood removed to this place and entered into 
business as a merchant and factor. While living here he 
wrote his tragedy, "The Prince of Parthia,'' and many 
fugitive pieces of local interest, which survived for years 
in the recollection of the people of this section. His tragedy, 
as already stated, was the first dramatic work written in 
America. Extracts from it may be found in Duycinck's 
Cyclopedia of Literature. 

The spot where Cornelius Harnett sleej^s is in the north- 
east corner of the old grave-yard, and is marked by a red 
sands-tone, about two feet high, on which is inscribed, now 
nearly illegible, the following : 

Cornelius Haknett, 

Died April 20th, 1781. 

"Slave to no sect, ho took no private road, 
But looked through nature, up to natui-e's God." 

Such is the brief and artless biograi)hy written by the 
men of 1781, of the first President of the Provincial Council, 
the first member of the Provincial Assembly from the 
Borough of AVilmington, and one of the three delegates 
from North Carolina, who signed the original articles of 
Confederation of the United States. He was the represent- 
ative man of the Cape Fear, bold, eloquent and incor- 
ruptible, with a genius equal to the greatest occasions and 
loftiest efforts. He did not live to witness the success of 
that cause which was so near his heart. While lying sick 
at the house of Mr. Spicer, on the Sound road, he was 



160 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

captured by a party sent out by Major Craig, the British 
commandant of the town, and brought into Wilmington. 
The effect of severe and almost barbarous, exposure, 
inflicted while a i)risoner, upon a system enfeebled by 
disease, could have but one result. He died while a 
captive in their hands, and the old graveyard of St. James' 
contains all that was mortal of the first scholar, statesman 
and patriot, of the age in which he lived. 

The State has honored his memory by assigning his name 
to the county of Harnett ; but what has New Hanover 
county ever done to honor him whose name so much honors 
her. Should not a monument have been erected to his 
memory long ago 1 Is it too late to do it now. either upon 
the spot where he lies, within the town he so faithfully 
served, or upon one of those lovely mounds in Oakdale 
Cemetery, whither the ashes of some of his compeers have 
been carried to slumber midst their children's children, 
apart from the bustle of the town, amidst the beauty and 
grandeur of the country ? Are there not some who will 
undertake this pious task, this labor of love, for one whose 
only descendant is his memory and his name ? 

Major George Blaney, who died in 1835, aged 40 years, 
belonged to the corps of Engineers of the United States 
Army. He was a prominent officer of the service, superin- 
tended the building of Fort Caswell, at the mouth of the 
river, and the works at the jetties, which were undertaken 
by the government to deepen the channel, but did not have 
the effect anticipated. 

Dr. William J. Harriss, a skillful physician and a man 
of parts, died in 1839, leaving numerous descendants. 

Christopher Dudley, for many years Postmaster at AVil- 
mington, died in 1840,. in the 65th year of his age. 

Alexander Anderson, distinguished for his integrity and 
sound judgment, and who was a very successful dry- 
goods merchant, died in 1844, aged 59 years. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 161 

Robert McLaugUin, the first principal of the school estab- 
lished by the society of Odd Fellows, died suddenly in 
1845. He was a man of great force of character. 

Lieut. William Henry Wright, of the United States 
Corps of Engineers, died in 1845, at the early age of 31 
years. He graduated at West Point with the highest 
distinction. General Beauregard being in the same class, 
and ranking second on the list. Lieutenant Wright was 
engaged upon the defences of Boston Harbor, and while 
thus engaged, published a treatise on mortars which is still 
recognized by the Engineer Corps as standard authority. 
He was one of the foremost men in his profession of his 
age, and was faultless in the discharge of the duties of life. 
Vices, he had none, and the elevated tone of his morality 
exerted a wholesome influence over all who came within 
the sphere of its action. 

Capt. J. H. K. Eurgwyn, of the United States Army, 
was killed in battle, during the Mexican war, in 1847, aged 
37 years. 

William C. Lord, formerly Collector of the port, remark- 
able for sound judgment and business qualifications, 
departed this life also in the year 1847, in the 54th year of 
his age. 

Dr. John Hill, connected for many years with the Bank 
of Cape Fear— first as Cashier and afterwards as President 
—died, also, in 1847. He wielded a pen at once graceful 
and vigorous, and would, without doubt, have attained a 
high rank in the rei)ublic of letters had he devoted himself 
to literary pursuits. 

Gov. Edward B. Dudley died in 1855. He rose to dis- 
tinction by his native force of character, and intrinsic 
worth. He served in the Legislature for several terms, and 
was the last representative from Wilmington under the old 
Constitution, which allowed borough representation. He 
was a member of Congress in 1829, served one term and 



162 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAllOLINA. 

declined a re-eiection, giving as a reason, that Congress was 
not a place for any one who desired to be honest. He 
identified himself with the cause of internal improvements, 
was the active and ardent friend of that great work, the 
Wilmington & AVeldon Railroad, was its first President, 
and did more, perhaps, than any other one man, to secure 
its comi^letion. He was the first Governor elected by the 
direct vote of the people in 1836, and so satisfactory was 
his administration that tliere was no organized opx)osi- 
tion to his re-election. He was a man of liberal and 
enlarged views, of generous impressions and spotless 
integrity. 

Robert W. Brown, a successful merchant and a man of 
great i)robity, whose word was as good as his bond, died 
in 1856, aged 70 years. 

Talcott Burr, Jr., a journalist of distinction, died in 1858, 
at the early age of 38 years. 

In the 3^ear 1859, at the ripe age of 92 years, died Dr. 
Armand John DeRosset, identified with our city by ances- 
tral descent, for more than a century. There are few 
brighter pages in the history of North Carolina than those 
which record the actions of such men as Harnett, Ashe, 
Waddell, Lillington, Moore, Howe and others, all of this 
section of the colony. It was among such a people that 
the youthful days of Dr. DeRosset were passed. He had 
advantages in early life for the attainment of knowledge, 
and in 1788 went to Philadelphia to attend the lectures at 
the Medical College, rendered famous by the genius of 
Dr. Benjamin Rush, and became the pui^il of that cele- 
brated man. He received his medical diploma in 1790, 
and immediately entered upon the i)ractice of his profes- 
sion in this city, w-liich soon became large and remunera- 
tive, and so continued until age compelled him to retire. 
For more than half a century he was affectionately called 
the "old doctor"; outliving all of his contemporaries, and 
dying at the patriarchal age of four score and twelve years, 
leaving behind him not an enemy in the world. 



WILMIIS'^GTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 1G3 

Mr. Geo. W. Davis, mercliantj died in 18G0, aged 52 
years. 

Rev. Adam Empie, a distinguished divine in the Episco- 
pal church, died also in 1860, in the Tnth year of his age. 

In 1861, Dr. Frederick J. Hill, Dr. Thomas H. Wright, 
aged 61, President of the Bank of Cape Fear, and Mr. 
Henry R. Savage, Cashier of the same Bank, and of the 
same age, passed to their rest. 

The year 1862 will ever be remembered by our people as 
a i)eriod of terror and dismay. That dread pestilence, the 
yellovf fever, raged with terrible malignity, sweeping off 
many of our most ]3rominent and valuable citizens, among 
them Rev. R. B. Drane, Rector of the parish of St. James, 
aged 62 years. 

James S. Green, Treasurer of the Wilmington & Weldon 
Railroad Company from its organization, aged 63 years. 

Dr. James H. Dickson, an accomplished physician, a 
man of letters and large scientific attainments, aged 59 
j^ears. 

J. W. K. Dix, a prominent merchant, age 85. 

Isaac Northrop, a large mill owner, age 67. 

James T. Miller, an intelligent and useful member of 
society, a genial, amiable, kind-hearted man, who served 
in the Legislature for two terms, was Mayor of the town 
for many years, Chairman of the Countj^ Court, and 
Collector of the Customs at the time of his death, aged 47 
years. 

Rev. J. L. Pritchard, Baptist minister, fell at the post of 
duty, aged 51 years. 

Thomas Clarkson Worth, merchant, of the firm of T. C. 
& B. G. Worth, aged 45 years, who was born to be a 
merchant of the first class and of the highest principle, 
could endure nothing vile or mean. He had a benevolent, 
feeling heart, in sympathy with the suffering poor. He 
possessed a delightful temper, and carried a stock of good 
nature which never failed him. During the dark davs of 



164 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

the yellow fever, September and October, 1862, he 
resolved not to Hy from the pestilence, but to abide here and 
assist in tending the sick and dying. In fact, it was an 
offering up of himself, on the altar of duty, in behalf of 
the poor and suffering. Dr. Worth took the fever and 
died on the 1st of November, 1862. 

Cyrus Stowe YanAmringe, one of the most gifted and 
promising of our young business men, remarkably pleasing 
and attractive in his person, ardent and faithful in his 
devotion to his friends, and of great purity in his life and 
character, fell at his post, with many other devoted people, 
during the pestilence, aged 26 years. 

During the epidemic, none of our devoted citizens who 
stood in the breach, were more unceasing in their 
work of humanity, or more constant in their attendance 
upon the sick of all classes, than Rev. Father Murphy, the 
Roman Catholic Priest, of St. Thomas' church, and Rev. 
A. Paul Repiton, of the Baptist church. The former 
succumbed to the disease towards the close of the epidemic, 
universally regretted by all denominations of christians. 
The latter outlived the disease, and closed a long and 
useful life, some years after, in Norfolk, Ya., and now 
sleeps in Oakdale. 

Mr. Edward P. Hall, President of the Branch of the 
Bank of the State, died in 1863, aged 77 years, as did also 
Joshua G Wright, a lorominent member of the bar, at the 
age of 54 years. 

Timothy Savage, Cashier of the Commercial Bank, died 
in 1864, in the 72nd year of his age. 

James Cassidey died in 1866, aged 74 years ; and James 
Fulton, journalist, in the same year. 

P. K. Dickinson, one of our most public-spirited citizens, 
died in 1867, aged 73 years. 

Daniel B. Baker, of the legal profession, died in 1868, 
aged 62 years. 

General Alexander McRae, Civil Engineer, died also in 



WILMINGTON-, NORTH CAROLINA. 165 

1868, aged 72 years ; and Mcholas N. Nixon, aged 68 
years. 

In 1869, Nathaniel Greene Daniel, of Worth & Daniel, 
departed this life at the early age of 36 years, n^onrned 
by many devoted friends, in his untimely death, and 
regretted by the entire business community. At the time 
of his death he was among the most successful and 
enterprising of our business men. Quick in percep- 
tion, vigorous in action, and steadfast in routine duty, 
he gave promise of a long and useful career, to be 
cut off in the prime of life, after months of painful 
suffering. Also Mr. John Wooster, an experienced man 
of business, and Hon, Samuel J. Person, formerly a Judge 
of the Superior Court, the former aged 78 and the latter 46 
years. 

Daniel L. Russell, an extensive planter, and a very 
successful one, died in 1871, aged 68 years. 

Alfred L. Price, one of the founders of the Wilmington 
Journal, died in 1873, aged 56 years ; and during the same 
year, Robert H. Cowan, the accomplished scholar, polished 
declaimer, and graceful elocutionist, passed from earth at 
the age of 48 years. "Whom the gods love, die early." 

In 1873, John A. Taylor, who was intimately associated 
with every work of public utility that would advance the 
interest and increase the prosperity of Wilmington, 
departed this life at the age of 74, followed in the same 
year by Miles Costin, a retired merchant and prominent in 
every good work, 73 years of age, and Junius D. Gardner, 
formerly an officer in the Bank of Cape Fear, at the age of 
77 years. 

Dr. William A. Berry, for many years a successful 
practitioner of medicine, died in 1875, aged 71 years. 

Dr. F. J. Cutlar, a most estimable gentleman, aged 75 
years, died, also, in 1875. 

In 1877, Robert Strange, the chivalrous gentleman, the 
accomplished scholar, the able jurist^ while arguing a case 



l66 WiLMI]Sr(iTON, noeth caeolina. 

in court, passed froln an earthly to a higher tribunal, in 
the 53rd year of his age. The same year witnessed the 
death of Silas N. Martin, who had been Mayor of the city, 
and President of the Carolina Central Railroad, aged 49 
years, also of Capt William B. Whitehead, an old and 
highly esteemed naval officer of the United States and Con- 
federate States service, and Adam Empie, an advocate 
of rare powers, in the 56th year of his age. 

In the year 1878, William A. Wright, died, aged 71 
years, also Isaac B. Grainger, aged 37 years, and Hon. 
Hugh Waddell, aged [_79 years. Mr. Wright and Mr. 
Waddell were both distinguished members of the bar. 
The latter won fame on the hustings, as an advocate 
in Legislative halls, and was prominent in the politics of 
the State. Mr. Wright preferred office j)ractice, made no 
pretentions to oratory, ;but his mind was thoroughly 
disciplined and stored with legal lore. As a corporation 
counsel he had no superior in the State, and his ability in 
in that branch of the profession was recognized abroad. In 
private life he was distinguished for his playf q1 humor, his 
fund of anecdote, his amiability and joyous vivacity. He 
was a close observer and diligent student, and his advice 
was sought by the old and grave, who valued his wisdom 
and learning as much as the more volatile his i^leasantry 
and fun. Capt. Grainger was the architect of his own 
fortunes, and by his industry and energy attained a posi- 
tion which gave him great influence in financial circles. He 
was President of the Bank of New Hanover, whose affairs 
he managed with skill and success. 

Dr. J. Francis King died in 1879, aged 48 years, and the 
following year, P. W. Fanning died, aged 81 years. 

In 1881, Dr. Moses John DeRosset, aged 42 years, F. D. 
Poisson, attorney at law, aged 45 years, John Dawson, 
merchant, aged 80 years, Zebulon Latimer, retired mer- 
chant, aged 70 years, T. C. James, journalist, aged 43 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 167 

years, and Henry Nutt, whose name will for all time be 
connected witli our river and harbor improvements, passed 
away. 

In 1882, they were followed to the grave, by Hon. R. S. 
French, formerly Judge of the Superior Court, and an 
ornament of the bar, aged 66, by Gfeneral William McRae, 
one of the most gallant f^nd distinguished officers in the 
Confederate army, and for many years prior to his death 
a successful railroad Engineer, Superintendent and Presi- 
dent, aged 47 years, then by his attached friend and com- 
panion in arms. Captain David R. Murchison, one 
of our most successful merchants, who united boldness 
with sound judgment in business transactions, aged 
44 — a man of most extraordinary endowments, and 
unbounded industry — and possessing an indomitable 
spirit, which grappled with all opposing forces, over- 
came all obstacles, and which placed him, in spite 
of disease and constant physical suffering that would 
have prostrated an ordinary man, at the head of his 
profession; recognized by his fellow merchants as a leader, 
and esteemed by many who knew that under his uncom- 
promising business exterior, shone a nature warm in sym- 
pathy with all distress and suft'ering, to which he responded 
quietly and liberally, and full of love and tenderness to 
those who knew him best, and to whose welfare and 
happiness he devoted his life. He was the first President 
of the Produce Exchange, having been the means of its 
organization, and for a few years prior to his death was 
largely interested in the Carolina Central Railway, of which 
he was its President. Levi A. Hart, a prominent citizen 
and proprietor of the Foundry Works, aged 73 ; Dr. J. C. 
AValker, a skillful physician and an amiable gentleman, 
aged 49, and James Dawson, a successful Banker, long 
identified with our city, and esteemed most by those with 
whom he was intimately related as a kind-hearted and 
devoted friend — aged 67. 



168 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Very many others could be mentioned, but the limits of 
this publication would not admit of its being done ; enough 
have been given, however, to show that there has been no 
degeneracy in our people since the old Colonial times. It 
is to be hoped that, in the not distant future, some one 
competent to the task may sketch the characters of those 
who once trod our streets and acted so well their parts in 
the busy scenes of life. It would not only be of great 
interest to those who are still upon the stage, but would 
excite future generations to imitate their example and to 
IDractice their virtues. 

I wish to acknowledge most gratefully the courtes}' of 
Mr. Richard J. Jones, through whom I have obtained 
much of the above interesting data, and the kindly offices 
of Col. James G. Burr, in matters of detail upon this sub- 
ject, without whose invaluable assistance I could not have 
accomplished a satisfactory record. 

In addition to "Oakdale," there are Belle vue, Pine 
Forest, (colored), and the National Cemeteries, all of which 
are well situated and carefully attended. 

THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

was organized in Wilmington, September 11, 1866, for the 
mutual interests of those engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
and for the purpose of instituting a uniform system for the 
government of trade and commerce ; of adjusting amicably 
by arbitration, causes of dispute, and of exercising a 
general supervision of all matters pertaining to the com- 
mercial interest of the port. 

In 1873 the organization of the Produce Exchange 
assumed control of certain branches of our trade not fully 
provided for by the Chamber of Commerce ; and on the 
12th of June, 1873, the Constitution of the latter body was 
amended in all points at conflict with the new organization. 
The following named members have served as President of 
the Chamber : William L. DeRosset, iive years ; Alfred 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 169 

Martin, two years ; Dr. W. W. Harriss, two years ; A. H. 
VanBokkelen, seven years. 

The jpresent officers and members are as follows : 

A. H. VanBokkelen President. 

E. Pesciiatj First Vice-President. 

Donald MacRae Second Vice-President. 

John L. Cantwell Secretary and Treasurer. 

EXECUTIVE council. 

William Calder, George Harriss, 

Jas. H. Chadbourn, Wm. L. DeRokset, 

R. E. Heide, (and James Sprunt, 

ex-officio President Produce Exchange.) 

MEMBERS. 

Adrian & Vollers, Kerchner & Calder Bros., 

Blossom, J. R., & Evans, Kidder, Edward, & Son, 

Burruss, E. E., McRary, W. H., & Co., 

Bank of New Hanover, Martin, Alfred, 

Cantwell, John L., Mitchell, B. F., & Son, 

Chadbourn, J. H., & Co., Navassa Guano Company, 

DeRosset & Co., Peschau, E. & Westermann, 

DeRosset, Wm. L., Robinson, C. H., 

Filers, H. B., Sprunt, Alex., & Son, 

Harriss, Geo., & Co., VanBokkelen, A. H., 

Hall & Pearsall, Worth & Worth, 

Heide, R. E., Williams, Geo. W., & Co. 

HONORARY. 

George Davis. 

The following is a record of the proceedings of the last 
annual meeting of the Chamber, held 7th March, 1883 : 

The annual meeting of the Chamber of Commerce not 
having been held in October, was ordered to be held yes- 
terday at 12 o'clock. 



170 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, who 
read his annual report, as follows : 

Chamber of Commerce, ] 

Wilmington, N. C, 7th March, 1883. j 

The annual meeting of this Chamber has been delayed 
beyond the regular time by causes which were in a measure 
unavoidable. 

The duties which remained to the Chamber of Commerce 
upon the formation of the Produce Exchange, in 1873, were 
"all questions arising bearing ui3on transportations, harbor 
and imx)rovements, and other public interests of our city 
or State," including the general commerce of the country 
and its advancement, which duties since the last annual 
meeting have been confined to the improvement being made 
by the United States Government on the Cape Fear River 
from Wilmington to the ocean, and such other matters as 
were calculated to be of benefit to the commerce of our 
own port, as well as the general commercial interests of the 
United States. 

The work now being carried out by the United States 
Government will be delayed in its completion because of 
the failure of Congress at its session just closed to pass a 
River and Harbor Bill. The present contracts, for which 
funds remain in hand, will soon be comp)leted, giving a 
depth of sixteen feet at low water, twenty feet at high water 
from good anchorage, well protected at a point twelve miles 
below the city to Smithville, which will reduce the expense 
of, and detention by, lighterage greatly. Vessels can now 
load to fifteen feet at wharves in the city. Bald Head 
Channel, out to the ocean, shows on its bar a dei^th of 
fourteen feet at low water, with eighteen to twenty ^feet at 
high water. 

A report kindly furnished by Mr. Henry Bacon, the 
efficient United States Assistant Engineer in charge of the 
improvements, under Lieutenant Colonel William P. Craig- 
hill, of the United States Engineer Corps, will be presented 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 171 

by Colonel William L. DeRosset, Chairman of the River 
and Harbor Committee of this Chamber, showing fully the 
present condition of the work. 

The foreign and domestic commerce of this port shows a 
steady and healthy increase in amount of tonnage employed 
and value of exports and imports. Railroad connections 
now existing, and others contemplated, which will be com- 
pleted wlien the depth of sixteen feet low water is obtained 
to the city, will bring, in addition to what will come by 
rivers to this port, three to ten-fold the present receipts. 
Larger coastwise steamers, with additional lines, are con- 
templated. Steamers to Europe will be emj^loyed for the 
next cotton crop, this port showing advantages as a ship- 
ping port over most others. 

Our people who have desponded over seeing Wilmington 
a great commercial centre, now have good reason to hope 
and soon will have facts to assure them of a great future 
for our city by the sea. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. H. YanBOKKELEN, 
President, 

The rejDort of the Committee on River and Harbor 
Improvements was read by Colonel W. L. DeRosset, Chair- 
man of that Committee, together with the accompanying 
letter of Mr. Henry Bacon, Engineer in charge, as follows : 
A. II. VanBoMeIe7i, Esq., President CUamber of Com- 
merce : 

Sir : — Your Committee have lately visited the Govern- 
ment works at New Inlet and Snow's Marsh, and having 
been favored with the accompanying report of Mr. Henry 
Bacon, United States Engineer in charge, which covers all 
the ground, and being i3repared to fully endorse the state- 
ments of Mr. Bacon, beg leave to present the same in con- 
nection with this as their annual report, i 
Respectfully submitted, 

WM. L. DeROSSET, Chairman, 
GEO. HARRISS, 
Committee on Bar and River Improvement. 



172 WILMINGTON, NOETII CAEOLINA. 

A. H. VanBoklcelen, Esq., President of tlie Chamber of 
Commerce, Wilmington, iV. C. : 

Sir : — At your request, I take pleasure in making a con- 
cise statement of the condition of the improvements of the 
Cape Fear Kiver. 

At the end of the fiscal year in 1878 the shortest sound- 
ings (or available depths) on the Bald Head Channel were 
9 feet at mean low water, 11 feet in 1879, 13 feet in 1880, 
and 14 feet in 1881 and 1882. 

The suction dredge Woodbury was in operation on the 
Bald Head Channel from April, 1879, to October, 1881. 
During the time 169,491 cubic yards of sand were dredged 
by it, and dumped in deep water, and a much larger 
amount was moved by the natural forces of the tidal 
currents from the channel and large area in the vicinity. 

The work of closing the New Inlet by the dam was begun 
in October, 1875, but the practical stoppage of the water 
was not perceptible until the years of 1878 and 1879. The 
dam was thoroughly com^Dleted in June, 1881. 

There can be no doubt of the beneficial effect of the 
operations of the suction dredge in concentrating the tidal 
currents, especially at the outer crest of the bar ; and it is 
probable that the available depth of the channel would 
have been further increased if the work had been continued. 
As it is, the results are more gratifying, as proving the 
power of the natural forces in the preservation of the 
Bald Head Channel. 

It is obvious that the value of all improvements depends 
on the preservation of the entrance channel. 

Much has been said about the "swashes" across the 
narrow beach of Smith's Island. During past years, and 
before, the present improvements were initiated, breaches 
were made by the sea across this beach, and were closed 
by natural causes. Those of 1857 were especially remark- 
able. The great storm of April 13th, 1877, caused the 
present breaches or swashes. They were subsequently 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 173 

partially closed by natural causes, but the completion of 
the New Inlet dam created a greater difference in the rela- 
tive times of the tides in the bay and sea, and thus increased 
the velocity of the tidal currents, out and in the swashes, 
which has prevented the nataral closures. 

The nearest swash is about two miles from the main 
river channel, and there are wide intervening shoals, and 
there is, therefore, no immediate danger from the swashes ; 
and they have no perceptible effect on the main currents 
of the river. But, inasmuch as the sea is gradually 
encroaching on the beach and shoals, and producing an 
indenture at the swashes, it is only a question of time when 
a defence must be made. 

The matter is now under consideration by a board of 
engineers. It is probable that they will decide that it is 
best to begin the work soon on an inner line, from Zeke's 
Island to the big marsh across the shoal waters, and nearly 
on the neutral line of the tidal currents, thus completely 
separating tlie river from the bay and swashes, in which 
case there can be but little doubt of the natural closure of 
the swashes and the re-formation of the beach. 

A large portion of the available appropriation— from 
$110,000 to $130,000— is now in reserve and can be used for 
this purpose, if so decided. 

The work of dredgiug now in progress is under two con- 
tracts. Those of Gf. H. Ferris, of May, 1881, for about 
750,000 cubic yards, and the National Dredging Company, 
of October, 1882, for 450,000 cubic yards. Both contracts 
terminate June 30, 1883. They will complete the channel 
along Snow's Marsh, and to the deep water above, to 270 
feet in width and 16 feet deep at mean low water ; and also 
the channel across the next shoal above to the same depth, 
and probably to the same width, thus securing 16 feet depth 
at low water to a i^oint about twelve miles below Wilming- 
ton, where there is good anchorage in 16 feet depth at low 



174 W^ILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 

water. The prospect of finishing the contracts at the 
appointed time is, perhaps, a little doubtful, but it is cer- 
tain the channel by Snow's Marsh and above to deep water 
will be finished so far that it can be used within the next 
two months. This will completely avoid the Horse Shoe 
Channel and practically save at least one day in getting 
deep draft vessels from Wilmington to the sea. At the 
present time the new channel is finished to 200 feet width 
along Snow's Marsh, and to 235 feet for the first half mile 
above. Then it is 130 feet wide for the next quarter of a 
mile, and on the remaining or upper portion it is 75 feet in 
width— and the cut making it 100 is in progress. The reach 
of the new channel above Snow's Marsh is approximately 
in the line with the ebb and flood tidal currents, and there 
is every reason to expect its permanence in depth and width. 
The New Inlet dam remains as finished in 1881. There has 
been no settlement or other signs of deterioration ; on the 
contrary, it is constantly becoming more and more solidified 
by oysters and barnacles. The passage of water through 
the small stones is becoming less and less. The sand beach 
is forming fast over the site of the Carolina Shoals, and is 
above high water for nearly half the distance from shore 
near Fort Fisher to the head of Smith's Island, and the 
shoals are bare at low tide over most of the remaining 
distance. There is a prospect at no distant time that the 
New Inlet basin will be converted into a Sound, with per- 
haps one or two small inlets across the newly formed outer 
beach. 

It is unfortunate that Congress has failed to make any 
appropriations for the coming fiscal year. It is hoped that 
one will be made early after the meeting of Congress in 
December next, in which case the delay will be less serious. 

My estimate of the amount required for the two years 
ending June 30, 1884, was $674,368, of which $225,000 was 
appropriated in 1882, leaving a balance needed— say of 



WILMINGTON, NOETII CAKOLINA. 175 

$450,000— to complete the dredging for 16 feet depth at low 

water to Wilmington and the thorough defence against the 

swashes. 

Very respectfully, &c., 

HENRY BACON, 

United States Assistant Engineer. 

QUARANTINE. 

Prior to 1868 all quarantine power was invested in the 
Commissioners of Navigation, who were required to appoint 
a Port Physician, and to make and enforce such rules and 
regulations for the protection of the inhabitants from infec- 
tious diseases, as they deemed necessary. But in that 
year (1868) the Legislature passed an Act which divested 
the Commissioners of all quarantine power and authority, 
and relieved them of all responsibility. 

The Act provided that a quarantine station should be 
established opposite Deep Water Point, and that the 
Governor should designate some physician who should act 
as medical quarantine officer for that station, where all 
vessels subject to quarantine should be brought to anchor, 
and be subject to such rules and regulations as the medical 
quarantine officer might prescribe. 

In 1879 this law was amended so as to j)i"Ovide for the 
appointment, by the President of the State Board of 
Health, of two i3hysicians residing in Wilmington, who, 
with the medical quarantine officer, should make and 
enforce all necessary quarantine regulations for the port of 
Wilmington. This law is still in force. 

This amendment was a wise provision against the intro- 
duction of infectious diseases by the error or oversight of 
a single individual empowered to act with unlimited dis- 
cretion ; and the present arrangement has been found to 
satisfy all classes of our people. The present Board is 
composed of Dr. W. G. Curtis, medical quarantine officer 
appointed by the Governor, resident at Smithville, and 



176 WILMINGTOJI, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Drs. Thomas F. Wood and George G. Thomas, residing at 
Wilmington, who issue quarantine rules and regulations 
every spring. 

The Regulations ior 1882 are given below : at this date 
(20th March) the Regulations for 1883 have not been issued, 
but it is thought by the Board that no material change will 
be made : 

Quarantine Regltlations, ) 

Port of Wilmington, N. C, March 23, 1882. \ 

The quarantine will go into effect on the first day of 
May. 

The following Quarantine Regulations will be enforced 
for the port of Wilmington, and the penalty of $200 for 
every violation thereof strictly enforced. Pilots violating 
the same are liable to a loss of their branch : 

To entitle a vessel to free pratique' in the port of Wil- 
mington, from whatever port she may come, she must 
show — 

1st. A clean bill of health, in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of the National Board of Health. 

2d. She must show, to the satisfaction of the Quaran- 
tine Board, that no case of infectious disease has occurred 
on board at the port of departure or during the passage. 

3d. She must be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected 
and ballast discharged at the Quarantine Station, and per- 
form tiny other requirements that may be designated by 
the Quarantine Physician. 

4th. After performing all these requirements, she may 
receive a permit in writing from the Quarantine Physician, 
which permit must be endorsed by the Quarantine Board 
before she will be allowed to come to the city, 

5th. Vessels subject to the above regulations will be 
designated by notice from time to time to their pilots and 
others interested in commerce, and all such vessels must 
come to anchor at the Quarantine Station, opposite Deei) 
Water Point, as far to the eastward of the channel as is 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 177 

practicable, so as to allow tliem swinging room, and not 
depart thence witbout written permission from the Quaran- 
tine Physician, 

6th. Universal cleanliness must be preserved on board 
all vessels detained in quarantine — the forecastle, steerage 
and cabin must be scrubbed, all foul wearing apparel and 
bed clothing of officers, i^assengers and seamen must be 
washed and aired, and all infected articles destroyed, and 
disinfection i)i'^cticed as directed by the Quarantine 
Physician. 

The bilge water must be pumped out twice a day, and 
water from alongside put in until the water pumped out 
shall be clear and free from any offensive smell ; and wind 
sails must be kept up in each hatchway, and trimmed to 
the wind whenever the weather permits. 

Commanders of vessels are accountable for all irregulari- 
ties committed on board their respective vessels, and for 
the conduct of such of their people as they may send on 
shore by permission of the Quarantine Officer ; and if any 
person shall leave a vessel in quarantine, or go on board of 
such vessels without the written permission of the Quaran- 
tine Officer, he shall, on conviction, suffer punishment as 
by law provided ; and all jiersons belonging to a vessel in 
quarantine are strictly forbidden to take on board any 
person who did not arrive in such vessel, without a regular 
permit from the Quarantine Officer. 

All communication between vessels in quarantine is 
expressly prohibited, and no boat or craft is permitted to 
go alongside a vessel in quarantine except the master 
thereof have a written permission from the Quarantine 
Officer. 

• Provisions and other necessaries intended to be sent on 
board vessels at quarantine must follow the same rules and 
regulations which apj)ly to other communications with the 
vessels, and all arrangements for discharging and taking a 
cargo must be made with the sanction of the Quarantine 
Officer. 



178 WlLMIXaTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Colors must be worn, and a light must be hoisted at night 
so long as the vessel is detained at quarantine. 

7th. Whenever for any reason the Quarantine Board 
resident in Wilmington shall not consider it safe for a 
vessel to go to the city she may be allowed to discharge 
and take in cargo at the Quarantine Station, under the fol- 
lowing conditions : After receiving a permit in writing 
from the Quarantine Physician, allowing her to load, the 
captain may permit all necessary lighters, stevedores and 
laborers to go on board or alongside ; but such lighters, 
stevedores and laborers shall be considered in quarantine, 
and subject to all the rules and regulations which apply to 
the vessel itself, according to the tenor of these regulations, 
and shall be subject to detention for observation, fumiga- 
tion and such other measures as the public safety may 
require, and the expenses of fumigation, insi^ection and 
permits shall be paid by the vessel for which the lighters, 
stevedores or laborers are employed ; and any vessel, steve- 
dore, lighterman or laborer violating these regulations, 
shall, in addition to the penalty of $200 i^rovided by law, 
be liable to be sent out of the limits of the city of Wil- 
mington until November 1st, next ensuing. 

Vessels engaged in discharging ballast, or an}" other 
service performed previous to fumigation, must remain in 
quarantine during the entire season unless permitted in 
writing by the Quarantine Physician to engage in other 
business. 

8th. All persons residing in the city of Wilmington who 
desire to visit vessels in quarantine, must tirst get a written 
permit from the Quarantine Board resident in Wilmington 
enabling them to return to the city, and must x'>i'esent this 
permit to the Quarantine Physician for his indorsement 
before they can go on board of any vessel in quarantine. 

9th. Pilots are notified that they must make inquiry as 
to the existence of contagious disease on board of vessels 
before boarding, and if by any means they become exposed 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 179 

to infection, they must remain on board such vessel until 

I)ermitted to go ashore by the Quarantine Physician. 

10th. Tow Boats and Steamboats are notified that they 

must not go alongside of any vessel subject to quarantine 

for any purpose until such vessel is regularly discharged 

from quarantine by written permit from the Quarantine 

Physician. W. G. CURTIS, M. D., 

Quarantine Physician, 

J. C. Walker, M. D., ) ^, ,, . 
Thomas F. Wood, M. D. j" '-o»s"it''^i^ts. 

THE WILMINGTON PRODUCE EXCHANGE 

was organized April, 1873, and incorporated September 16, 
1873. The object of this organization was to provide and 
regulate a suitable room for a Produce Exchange in 
the city of Wilmington, to inculcate just and equitable 
principles of trade, to maintain uniformity in commercial 
usages, . to acquire, preserve and disseminate valuable 
business information, and to adjust controversies and 
misunderstandings between its members. 

The following named members have served as President 
since its organization : D. R. Murchison, D. Gf. Worth, C. 
H. Robinson, R. E. Calder and James Sprunt. 

The present officers and members are as follows : 

James Sprunt President. 

H. C. McQueen Vice President. 

BOARD OF MANAGERS. 

R. E. Calder, R. Moore, 

B. F. Hall, Alfred Martin, 

W. R. Kenan. 

3r embers. 

Adrian & Yollers, Bond, T. E,, 

Atkinson & Manning, Burruss, E. E., 

Barker, E. Gr., & Co., Bank of New Hanover, 

Boney, G., & Sons, Cantwell, John L., 



180 



WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 



Cliess-Carley Co., 

Carolina Central Railroad, 

Crow. John E., 

Covington, E. P. & Son, 

Cazaux, A. D., 

DeRosset"& Co., 

Daniel, Jolin H., 

Gore, D. L., 

Gore, Albert, 

Greene, A. H., 

Gordon, Jolin W. & Bro., 

Hall & Pearsall, 

Heide& Co., 

Hicks, R. W., 

Harriss, W. W., 

Wilmington & Weldon R.R 

Johnson, Harding, 

Kerchner & Calder Bros., 

Kenan & Forshee, 

Lilly, E., 

Love, C. S. & Co., 

Metts, James I., 

Mitchell, B. F. & Son, 



Martin, Alfred, 
Mebane, C. P., 
McNair, S. P., 
Northrop, Samuel, 
Northrop & Camming, 
Newbury, F. A., 
Oldham, W. P., & Co., 
Peschau, E. & Westerraann, 
*Paterson, Downing & Co., 
Pennypacker, E. J., 
Rankin & Birdsey, 
Robinson & King, 
Sprunt, Alex. & Son, 
Shotter, S. P., & Co., 
Smith, C. E., & Co., 
Turrentine, J. R., 
VanBokkelen, A. H., 
VanAmringe, Geo.O., 
Whitehead, W. A., 
Worth & W^orth, 
Williams, Geo. W., & Co., 
Woody & Currie, 
Willard, A. A. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 

The Bally Review. The Morning Star. 

The rooms of the Exchange are quite inadequate, not 
more than half the members being comfortably provided 
for. It is hoped that the next Board of Managers will 
furnish more suitable accommodations, and that the rooms 
may not only be attractive to the members, but serve as a 
place of resort for our business people at any hour of the 
day. The stock reports and other statistics required by 
the organization are most creditably prepared by the 
Secretary, Col. J. L. Cantwell, whose long experience and 
remarkable accuracy especially fit him for this important 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 181 

duty. The Board of Managers have much pleasure in 
testifying to his skill and faithfulness. 

In an old pamphlet "On the Trade of Wilmington, 
"North Carolina, and of the produce exportable from the 
"River Cape Fear, the season and prospects taken into 
"view May 1st, 1815," by Joshua Potts, the following 
interesting information is given under the head of 
^' Bemarl's^- : " It is unadvisable, and often disadvanta- 
geous, for a merchant in a distant State or foreign port, to 
dispatch, a ship to Wilmington under orders for a cargo of 
our ]3roduce, without first having written to his correspon- 
dent of particulars required. Four to six loeeJcs preGtous 
notice to the agent is always requisite, that he may have 
time and opportunity to procure the produce described, 
at the best advanl?age, and have it in readiness by the time 
of the arrival of such shij). Great detention and disap- 
pointment often happens in consequence of voyages being 
abruptly commenced, as, but seldom, i)eculiar kinds of 
produce can be had on sudden notice." 

The above contrasts strangely with the method of the 
present day. Several cargoes at a time are now frequently 
sold within as many hours by cable to foreign markets. A 
remarkable instance of improved facilities occurred here a 
few weeks ago, when a member of this Exchange offered 
by cable to Liverpool, at 9.30 A. M., a cargo of cotton, 
which was not only immediately accepted, but confirmed 
by a cable received in the Wilmington office 63 minutes 
after the dispatch of the first message to Liverpool. Thus 
an entire transaction was made and confirmed with a foreign 
market within an hour and a quarter — annihilating time 
to the extent of about three hours and three-quarters. 

WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH. 

There is no record of the date of the first appearance of 
the telegraph in Wilmington, but an office was probably 
established here by the old Washington and New Orleans 



182 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Magnetic Telegraph Company, al^out the year 1850. The 
system then generally in nse was the old Morse register 
system— everything being recorded on paper in Morse char- 
acters, and transcribed by the operator— a slow and tedions 
process. 

About 1858, the use of paper began to be laid aside by a 
great many operators, who discovered that sound reading 
was quite as safe ; and while lessening the labor, it expe- 
dited the business by saving a great deal of time that had 
before been consumed in translating from the paper. Now, 
and for fifteen years past, the use of the old Morse paper 
register has been discontinued almost entirely. Hence the 
system in use here at present is that in general use in this 
country — the "Morse" — by which the message is taken 
from the instrument by sound, at the very moment it is 
sent by the transmitting office, and is ready for delivery at 
the end of the line as soon as the last word is finished by 
the sending office. 

There are other systems such as the "Automatic," the 
* 'Harmonic," and some of which very little is known, but 
they all work by complicated means, and require a small 
army of clerks to translate and transcribe that which has 
been received. None have yet stood a^rac^/ca? test that 
would make them desirable as a substitute for the old, 
first invention, of Morse. 

During the past three years there have been built here 
two new wires, in which Wilmington has some interest — 
as they have given us better facilities for handling an 
important class of business. One of them is the New York 
Cotton Exchange wire, giving us direct communication 
with the Cotton Exchange, and Wall Street, in New York. 

The other is the Carolina Central wire, which, in the 
cotton season is an imi)ortant one to cotton merchants. 

The present facilities of the office are as follows : 1 New 
York Commercial News Department wire— direct with the 
New York Main office ; 1 New York Cotton Exchange wire, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 183 

direct ; 2 Charleston wires ; 2 Augusta wires, (one of these 
used to Savannah at times) ; 1 Washington and Ealeigh 
wire ; 1 New Berne and Raleigh wire ; 2 Richmond wires ; 
2 Charlotte wires, (one extending to Shelby). 

Some of these wires of course take in a number of inter- 
mediate stations between Wilmington and Augusta, and 
between Wilmington and Weldon. 

During the past two years rates have been reduced very 
materially, the reduction averaging at least twenty per 
cent. The volume of business here has increased in the 
last three years about one-fourth, and the receipts about 
ten per cent. 

Good progress has been made with us in the manner of 
handling business during this period. There has been a 
gradual lessening in the time of dispatching business, and 
in the transmission of the replies thereto, notably on 
northern and western lines. Of course there is still room 
for improvement, especially in the further reduction of 
rates in view of the yearly increase in the dividends 
declared by this immense monopoly. 

The cable business, up to last month, has been larger 
this season than ever before— showing that our foreign 
business is growing, or that people are becoming habituated 
to the use of the cable. 

The staff of this office is as follows : 

W. H. Sterling, Manager. 

OPERATORS. 

K. B. Topping, R. J. McIliienny, 

C. W. Peterson, J. T. Hambrick. 

clerks. 

E. B. BURKHEIMER, JOHN ShOLAR. 

Besides six messengers and two battery and line men. 
Our general business community will bear cheerful 
testimony, not only to the unvarying courtesy and obliging 



184 WILMINGTON", TCORTII r'AllOLlXA, 

(lisixj.sition of ]\raiKi,<^ei' Sterling. l)uf to tlie remarkable 
industry and Avonderl'iil accuracy and ])atience of those 
quiet, solemn people, upon whom so raucli depends in our 
daily business transactions. 

WILMINGTON TELEPHONE EXCHANGE 

is licensed, under patents of Alexander Graliam Bell, and 
was opened in 1879. The present number of subscribers is 
81, and the system is generally adopted by our business 
people. The city of Wilmington was one of the first 
in the South to show its enterprise in the adoption of the 
Telephone Exchange system. In 1880 the method of work- 
ing was much improved by the introduction of the "Law 
System" of Central Office "switching," which is claimed 
to be the best in the world. 

Wilmington was the second city in the United States to 
adopt the Telephonic Fire Alarm System, the wisdom of 
the action being frequently demonstrated. 

Private lines are in operation with the main office to the 
Navassa Guano Works, at Meares' Bluff, and to Mason- 
boro' Sound. 

There is i^robably no more obliging and intelligent 
Manager in the service than Mr. J. C. AVhite, in charge 
here, who affords every facility for prompt and satisfactory 
communication with the members of the Exchange. 

It is a matter of interest with reference to this subject 
that experience has proved the impossibility of using the 
telephone satisfactorily for greater distances than a hun- 
dred miles. 

Laboratory telephonic tests have worked through a 
"resistance" of wire equal to 150,000 miles of telegraph 
line, but on actual lines the leakage of electricity from the 
wire to the ground, dampness in the atmosphere, and other 
magnetic disturbances render the transmission of speech 
far less easy than was at first expected by electricians. By 
submarine wire the circuit is confined to lesser distances — 



WILMINGTON, NOKTTI CAKOLINA. 185 

that is to say, a land wire will work satisfactorily live times 
longer than a cable wire, so that, although telephonic 
messages have ])een sent hy cable sixty to eighty miles, 
they are practically of no use at a greater distance than 
twenty or thirty miles. 

A recent publication asserts that experiments made with 
the Gray-Harmonic system and Dorrance telej)lione be- 
tween Cleveland, Ohio, and New York, over the heavy, 
copper wire of the Postal Telegraph Company have de- 
monstrated the feasibility of connecting the larger cities of 
the Middle and Eastern States by telephone, and a record 
is made of alleged thoroughly successful tests over a wire 
of G50 miles in jDroof of this. The statement is also made 
that a test of speaking over 1,000 miles of wire has been 
successful; but it is believed by many electricians to be 
either a mistake or altogether untrue. 

WILMINGTON POST-OFFICE STATISTICS. 

For the year ending January 31, 1883. 

Number of pieces of mail matter originating and received 
at this office for transmission : 

First class matter, number of jDieces, . .1,568,580 * 
Second '^ " " " " ..1,227,920 

Third " " " " " .. 191,508 

Fourth" " " " " .. 20,448 

Total number of pieces mailed .... 3,008,516 

Number of pieces received at this office 

for delivery, 4,036,240-4,036,240 



Total No. of pieces handled 7,044,756 

MONEY OEDER BUSINESS. 

Receipts. 

Deposits received from other offices .... |124,800 

Received from Money Orders issued, . . 78,330— $203,130 



186 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Disbursements. 

Money Orders paid, $108,140 

Deposited order of Department 94,990— $203,130 

Total Money Order business, $406,260 

REGISTERED LETTER BUSINESS. 

Nambsr letters registered at this office, 8,325 
Number of re.sfistered letters delivered 

at this office, 7,440 

Number of registered letters in transit, 37,420 

Total number of registered letters 
handled, 53,185 

RECEIPTS FOR SALE OF STAMPS, 

Stami)ed envelopes. Postal cards, &c., 132,342 

International Money Orders are issued in 

The Dominion of Canada, France, 

New Foundland, Algiers, 

England, Switzerland, 

Scotland, • Austria, 

Wales, Hungary, 

Ireland, Italy, 

British India, Jamaica, 

Germany, New Zealand, 

Denmark, New South Wales, 

Sweden, Victoria, 

Norway, Belgium, 

Luxemberg, Tasmania. 
The Netherlands, 

The general business of the office has increased fully 
forty per cent, in the last four years, and the administra- 
tion of its affairs by the present Post-Master, E. R. Brink, 
who has been repeatedly renominated, is most efficient, 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 187 

and, I believe, entirely satisfactory to all classes of our 
citizens. 

Arrangements are being made for a free delivery of tlie 
mails tlirougliout our city, which has been proposed 
through Post-Master Brink, and our city government is 
preparing for this improvement by a proper designation of 
the streets and numbering of the houses. 

LUMBER. 

In the beginning of this century Michaux, with reference 
to the long-leaf pine {Pinus Australis), wrote as follows : 
<' This invaluable tree is known both in the countries which 
produce it and in those to which it is exported, by different 
names : in the first it is called long-leaved pine, yellow 
pine, pitch pine, and brown jDine ; in the Northern States, 
Southern pine and red pine ; and in England and the West 
Indies, Georgia pitch pine. I have preferred the first 
denomination, because this species has longer leaves than 
any other eastward of the Mississippi, and because the 
names of yellow pine and pitch pine, which are more com- 
monly employed, serve, even in the Middle States, to desig- 
nate two species entirely distinct and extensively diffused. 
The specific epithet Australis is more appropriate than 
that of Palustris, which has hitherto been applied to it by 
botanists, but which suggests an erroneous idea of the 
situations in which it grows. 

Towards the north the long-leaved pine first makes its 
appearance near Norfolk, in Virginia, where the pine- 
barrens begin. It seems to be especially assigned to dry, 
sandy soils, and it is found, almost without interruption, 
in the lower part of the Carolinas, Georgia and the Floridas, 
over a tract more than 600 miles long from northeast to 
southwest, and more than 100 miles broad from the sea 
towards the mountains of the Carolinas and Georgia. I 
have ascertained three points, about 100 miles apart, where 
it does not grow ; the first, 8 miles from the river Neuse, in 



188 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAKOLINA. 

North Carolina, on tlie road from Lonisburgli to Raleigh ; 
the second, between Chester and Winnsboro, in South 
Carolina ; the third, 12 miles north of Augusta, in Greorgia. 
Where it begins to show itself towards the river Neuse, it 
is united with the loblolly pine, the yellow pine, the pond 
pine, the black jack oak and the scrub oak; but immedi- 
ately beyond Raleigh it holds almost exclusive possession 
of the soil, and is seen in company with the pines just 
mentioned only on the edges of the swamps enclosed in 
the barrens ; even there not more than one stock in a hun- 
dred is of another species. With this exception the long- 
leaved pine forms the unbroken mass of woods which 
covers this extensive country. Bat between Fayetteville 
and Wilmington, in North Carolina, the scrub oak is found 
in some districts disseminated in the barrens^ and, except 
this species of pine, it is the only tree capable of subsist- 
ing in so dry and sterile a soil. 

The mean stature of the long-leaved pine is 60 or 70 feet, 
with an uniform diameter of 15 or 18 inches for two-thirds 
of this height. Some stocks, favored b}^ local circum- 
stances, attain much larger dimensions, particularly in 
East Florida. The bark is somewhat furrowed, and the 
epidermis detaches itself in thin transparent sheets. The 
leaves are about a foot long, of a beautiful, brilliant green, 
united to the number of three in the same sheath, and 
collected in bunches at the extremity of the branches; they 
are longer and more numerous on the young stocks, which 
are sometimes out by the negroes for brooms. The buds 
are very large, white, fringed, and not resinous. 

The bloom takes i3lace in April ; the male flowers form 
masses of divergent, violet-coloured aments about 2 inches 
long ; in drying they shed great quantities of yellowish 
pollen, which is diffused by the wind and forms a momen- 
tary covering on the surface of the land and water. The 
cones are very large, being 7 or 8 inches long, and 4 inches 
thick when oi^en, and are armed with small retorted spines. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 189 

In the fruitful year they are ripe about the 15th of October, 
and shed their seeds the same month. The kernel is of an 
agreeable taste, and is contained in a thin white shell, 
surmounted by a membrane ; in every other species of 
American pine the shell is black. Sometimes the seeds 
are very abundant and are voraciously eaten by wild 
turkeys, squirrels, and the swine that live almost wholly in 
the woods. But in the unfruitful year, a forest of a 
hundred miles in extent may be ransacked without finding 
a single cone ; this probably occasioned the mistake of the 
French, who, in 1567 attempted a settlement in Florida, 
that the woods were filled with superb pines that never 
yielded seed. 

The long- leaved pine contains but little sap ; several 
trunks 15 inches in diameter at the height of 3 feet, which 
I have myself measured, had 10 inches of perfect wood. 
Many stocks of this size are felled for commerce, and none 
are received for exportation of which the heart is not 10 
inches in diameter when squared. 

The concentric circles, in a trunk fully developed, are 
close and at equal distances, and the resinous matter, which 
is abundant, is more uniformly distributed than in the 
other species ; hence the wood is stronger, more compact, 
and more durable ; it is, besides, fine-grained and suscep- 
tible of a bright polish. These advantages give it a prefer- 
ence over every other pine ; but its quality is modified by 
the nature of the soil in which it grows ; in the neighbor- 
hood of the sea, where only a thin layer of mold reposes 
on the sand, it is more resinous than where the mold is 5 
or 6 inches thick ; the stocks that grow upon the first 
mentioned soil are called pitch pine, and the others yellow 
pine, as if they were distinct species. 

This wood subserves a great variety of uses in the Caro- 
linas, Georgia and the Floridas ; four-fifths of the houses 
are built of it, except the roof, which is covered with 
shingles of cypress ; but in the country the roof is also of 



190 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

pine, and is renewed after 15 or 18 years, a considerable 
interval in a climate so warm and humid. 

A vast consumption takes place for the enclosure of 
cultivated fields. In naval architecture this is the most 
esteemed of the pines : in the Southern States, the keel, 
the beams the side-planks, and the pins by which they are 
attached to the ribs, are of this tree. For the deck, it is 
I)referred to the true yellow pine, and is exported for that 
purpose, to Philadelphia, New York, etc., where it is in 
request, also, for the flooring of houses. 

In certain soils its wood contracts a reddish hue, and it 
is for that reason known in the dock-yards of the Northern 
States by the name of red pine. Wood of this tint is 
considered the best, and in the opinion of some ship- 
wrights, it is more durable on the sides of vessels, and less 
liable to injury from worms, than the oak. 

The long-leaved pine is the only species exported from 
the Southern States to the West Indies. A numerous fleet 
of small vessels is employed in this trafiic, imrticularly 
from Wilmington, in North Carolina, and Savannah, in 
Georgia. 

The stuff destined for the Colonial market is cut into 
every form required in the construction of houses and of 
vessels ; what is sent to England is in planks from 15 to 30 
feet long and 10 or 12 inches broad ; they are called 
ranging Umbers, and are sold at 8 or 10 dollars a hundred 
cubic feet. The vessels freighted with this timber repair 
chiefly to Liverpool, where it is said to be employed in the 
building of ships and of wet-docks : it is called Georgia 
pitch pine, and is sold 25 or 30 per cent, higher than any 
other pine imported from the United States. 

From the diversified uses of this wood an idea may be 
formed of the consumption ; to which must be added a 
waste of a more disastrous kind, which it seems impossible 
to arrest. Since the year 1804 extensive tracts of the finest 
pines are seen covered only with dead trees. In 1802 I 



WILMINGTON", NORTH CAEOLINA. 191 

remarked a similar plienomenon among the yellow pines in 
East Tennessee. This catastrophe is felt among the Scotcli 
firs which people the forests of the north of Europe, and is 
wrought by swarms of small insects, which lodge them- 
selves in different parts of the stock, insinuate themselves 
under the bark, penetrate into the body of the tree, and 
cause it to perish in the course of the year. 

The value of the long-leaved pine does not reside exclu- 
sively in its wood : it supplies nearly all the resinous matter 
used in the United States in ship-building, and a large 
residue for exportation to the AVest Indies and Q-reat 
Britain. In this view its place can be suj^plied by no other 
species: those which afford the same product being dis' 
persed through the woods or collected in inaccessible 
places. In the Northern States the lands which, at the 
commencement of their settlement, were covered with the 
pitch pine, were exhausted in 25 or 30 years, and for more 
than half a century have ceased to furnish tar. The pine- 
barrens are of vast extent, and are covered with trees of 
the finest growth ; but they cannot all be rendered profita- 
ble from the difficulty of communication with the sea. 
Formerly tar was made in all the lower parts of the 
Carolinas and Georgia, and throughout the Floridas vestiges 
are everywhere seen of kilns that have served in the com- 
bustion of resinous wood. At present this branch of 
industry is confined to the lower districts of North 
Carolina, which furnish almost all the tai" and turpentine 
exported from Wilmington and other ports." 

Professor Kerr, in his Physiographical Description of 
North Carolina, refers to the trees of this State as fol- 
lows : 

"It will be seen from the United States Census tables for 
1870, that of its 50,000 square miles of territory, 40,000 are 
still covered with forests. The range and variety of preva- 
lent and characteristic species of growth, being of course 
proj)ortioned to those of the climate and soil^ are very 
great; 



192 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

There are, in fact, three well-marked and broadly dis- 
tinguished forest regions, corresponding to and dependent 
upon the three geographical sub-divisions. Eastern, Middle 
and Western. And while the first section is characterized 
by a growth common in its prominent features to that in 
the Grulf States, as the long-leaf pine, cypress, &c.; the 
western or mountain section contains many species familiar 
in the White Mountains, and in New York. Among the 
most distinctive, abundant and valuable species are the 
pines, oaks, hickories, cypress and juniper. 

Pines are the predominant growth of the eastern section, 
there are eight species in the State, the most important 
being the long-leaf {pinus australis), the yellow, {pinus 
mitts), and the white {pinus strobus). The long-leaf pine 
is found only in the eastern or sea-coast region; the yellow 
pine abounds throughout the State ; the white pine is 
limited to the higher mountain regions. 

The long-leaf pine is the predominant growth of the 
eastern section of the State, and occupies almost exclusively 
a broad belt quite across the State, and extending from 
near the coast more than a hundred miles into the interior, 
covering a territory of near 15,000 square miles. This is 
one of the most valuable of all trees, on account of the 
number and importance of the uses it subserves. It is 
shipped in the form of lumber for civil and naval architec- 
ture to all parts of the world, and is unequalled for these 
purposes, on account of its strength and durability. It 
furnishes the naval stores of commerce, known in all parts 
of the world ; the forests of this State furnishing twice as 
much as all the other States together. From the rosin of 
this tree is made the rosin-oil of commerce, and this sub- 
stance also supplies the Southern towns with gas. 

The yellow pine furnishes an important building timber 
in all parts of the State. 

The white pine is confined to the sx^urs and plateaus 
of the mountain and Piedmont regions, being found in 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 193 

great abundance in some counties, and of great size, three 
feet and more in diameter, and one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty feet high. 

The other species are less widely distributed and less 
valuable, except the Plnus tceda, which, in the Eastern 
section, sometimes attains a great size, and furnishes an 
excellent building and ship timber. 

The oaks rank with the pines in value, and excel them 
in variety of uses, number of species and extent of dis- 
tribution. While the pine, (a single species,) gives charac- 
ter to about one-third of the forest area of the State, the 
oaks dominate not less than two-thirds. There are twenty 
species in the United States, all of them found in North 
Carolina, with possibly one insignificant exception; Among 
these the most important are : 

The white oaks, of which there are several species, (the 
most valuable), Quercus alba, Q. oMusiloba, (post oak and 
Q. prinus,) forming extensive forests in all sections of the 
State. On account of its strength and durability and great 
abundance, its uses are important and manifold, both for 
domestic purposes and for export in the form of staves and 
ship timber. The ship-yards of Liverpool are already 
seeking their material in the forests of middle North Car- 
olina. 

Several other species of oak are also of wide and varied 
use, chiefly the red oak {Q. rubra), black oak {Q. tinctoria), 
and willow oak {Q. i:>liellos\ which are abundant through- 
out the middle and western district, and often grow to a 
very great size. Live oak {Q. mrens) is found only in the 
seaboard region, whose value in ship-building is well- 
known. 

Hickory.— Of this tree there are nine species in North 
America, and seven of them are found in this State, and 
three species in all parts of it, and in abundance, and often 
of great size. But little use has hitherto been made of this 
tree, eXcJept as fuel and for wagons and handles ; but being 



194 WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 

one of tlie most dense, rigid, heavy and iron-like of our 
woods, it has recently come into great demand, and many 
large handle and spoke factories have been erected within 
a few years, whose products are shipped by millions to 
Eurox^e, California, Australia and all mining countries 
especially. The forests of North Carolina will supply this 
world-wide demand for many years. 

Walnut exists in two species, one, the common black 
walnut {Juglans nigra), throughout the State, but most 
abundantly in the middle district. It is a most valuable 
wood, being very compact, durable, free from attacks of 
insects, of a very fine dark brown color, and capable of a 
high polish. It is the most popular and universally used 
cabinet wood in the United States, but is so common in 
the middle and western sections of this State that large 
farms are fenced with it. 

The Chestnut {Castanea vesca) is one of our largest 
forest trees, sometimes 10 feet in diameter and 80 to 90 feet 
high, found mostly and abundantly in the Piedmont and 
mountain regions of the State, where it is much esteemed 
and used for fencing, on account of its great durability and 
facility of working. It is also valued for its abundant 
crop of fruit, which, with the acorns of tlie oaks, is the 
princip>al dependence of the hog-raisers of the mountain 
counties. 

Poplar {Lir lodendron tulipifera) is one of the largest 
and handsomest of our forest trees, and occurs in all parts 
of the State, attaining its greatest size in the mountains. 
It is much used for building and other domestic purposes 
as a substitute for pine, combining lijiitness and facilitj^ 
of working with rigidity and durability. 

Cypress {Taxodlum disticlium) abounds in the swamps 
and lowlands of the east, forming the almost exclusive 
growth of several thousand square miles of territory. It 
grows to a great size, the wood is very liglit, durable and 
much used for the manufacture of shingles, whicli are 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 195 

exported in immense numbers to all the Northern Atlantic 
ports. It is also used for building purposes, and for staves 
and telegraph poles, water vessels, etc. 

Juniper, or white cedar {Cupressus tliyoides) is found in 
the same region, though not so abundant, and is used for 
the same purposes as the cypress, especially for shingles 
and coojier work, for which it is even preferred to the 
latter. 

Besides these are the maple (6 species), birch (3 si^ecies), 
beech, ash (4 species), poplar (3 species), elm (3 species), 
mulberr}^, sassafras, gum (4 species) dogwood, i^ersimmon, 
holly, locust (2 species), sycamore, linn, linden or lime (3 
species), buckeye (2 species), wild cherrj^, red cedar, white 
cedar, magnolia (7 species), willow (4 species), and others, 
of various uses in domestic economy ; many of them valued 
as shade and ornamental trees, a number of them much 
prized as cabinet woods ; among which may be mentioned 
the black walnut, already described, the red cedar, some- 
times nearly equalling the mahogany in beauty of color 
and grain, free from insects and aromatic ; the black birch, 
or tiiountain mahogany, and wild cherry, both of very 
ornamental grain, taking a high polish ; and so also the 
curly and bird's eye maple; the holly, a beautiful, close- 
grained, white wood, taking a brilliant polish. It will 
readily be imagined what variety, richness and beauty 
these numerous si)ecies, belonging to so many and widely 
differing families of plants, must imx3art to the forests of 
this State, and what a vast mine of wealth they must be- 
come in the near future. 

Of the twenty kinds of timber used in the ship-yards in 
New York, nearly all are found in the forests of this State." 

With reference to this important and interesting subject 
Messrs. E. J. Hale & Son, publishers. New York, have 
just issued a most valuable work by Mr. P. M. Hale, of 
Raleigh, entitled "Woods and Timbers of North Carolina," 
from which much profitable information may be gathered. 



196 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Having already quoted at greater length his authority on 
^^ Pinus Australis,"' I have only to add Mr. Hale's esti^ 
mate, for North Carolina, of the long-leaved pine supply, 
which he gives as follows : 

Bladen 288,000,000 feet. 

Brunswick 141,000,000 " 

Chatham 448,000,000 " 

Columbus 288,000,000 " 

Cumberland 806,000,000 " 

Huplin 21,000,000 " 

Harnett 486,000,000 " 

Johnston 563,000,000 " 

Moore 504,000,000 " 

New Hanover 96,000,000 " 

Onslow 34,000,000 " 

Robeson „ 864,000,000 " 

Sampson 602,000,000 " 

Wake 48,000,000 " 

Wayne 40,000,000 " 



u 



Total 5,229,000,000 

STEAM SAW MILLS. 

The lirst steam Saw Mill established in Wilmington, so 
far as can be ascertained, was erected on the western side 
of the Cape Fear Eiver, on the site now occupied by the 
Gruano Warehouse of the Champion Compress Company, 
by a person named Mazerretti, in the year 1818. 

Sometime afterwards Mr. Henry Howard purchased the 
lot and built a larger and more valuable mill. Hutchinson 
and Milan (the latter subsequently British Vice Consul at 
this port) were also engaged in the milling business between 
1820-'25. 

Edward B. Dudley and P. K. Dickinson, constituting 
the firm of Dudley & Dickinson, and two of the most 
prominent citizens of "Wilmington, the one first Governor 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 197 

of tlie State, elected by the direct vote of the i)eople, and 
the other identified with the material prosi^erity of the 
town, erected a mill at the southern extremity of the settle- 
ment about the year 1828. 

In 1833-34 Mr, Aaron Lazarus established the first 
planing mill in North Carolina upon the site now occupied 
by Messrs. Northrop & Gumming, and which was destroyed 
by fire a few months after its erection. Mr. J. K. Mcllhenny 
also owned a mill at or near the locality of Messrs. Dudley 
«& Dickinson's, which he afterwards sold to Capt. Gilbert 
Potter, who operated it successfully, first under his own 
name, afterwards under the firm name of Potter & Kidder ; 
and it is still continued by Messrs. Edward Kidder & Son, 
and is well known in all lumber markets as one of the 
most successful mills in the country. 

It is worthy of notice, and should be put upon record, 
that the credit of utilizing the saw-dust for fuel, by which 
a heavy expense in running steam saw mills has been 
saved, is due to Mr. Edward Kidder of this city. He was 
the first to carry the idea, which had long baffled operators, 
into successful application, and is entitled to the honor 
which is justly his due. 

Mr, P. K. Dickinson, after disposing of his interest in 
his mill below the town, built another, with planing mill 
attached, where the dei)ot of the Carolina Central Railroad 
is now, which was taken down when the Company came 
into possession of the iiroperty. 

Some years ago a small mill stood at the foot of Walnut 
street, put up by a Mr. Nickerson. About the year 1840 
Col. John McRae erected the Harrison mill very near that 
of Nickerson' s, and on this site, also, the recently destroyed 
mill of Mr. J. W. Taylor lately stood. Messrs. Dickinson 
and Morris owned a mill located on Point Peter, and Mr. 
Henry R. Savage built one on the south side of the western 
terminus of Brunswick ferry, which bore the name of 
Steam Saw Mill No. 5, it being the fifth one then in 



198 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

operation. Later on, Mr. O. Gf. Parsley erected one at 
Hilton, whicli is now operated by Messrs. Parsley & 
Wiggins, 

In the early days of this industry in Wilmington, the 
sawed lumber was generally shipx^ed to the AVest Indies, 
and return cargoes of molasses and sugar imported. It 
was at that time a very profitable business, as many as 50 
lumber vessels having loaded here at the same time, but of 
late years the over-production in Georgia and in other 
Southern States has greatly depressed this important 
industry. 

At the i^resent time tliere are five steam saw mills in 
active operation in this city. Their average capacity, under 
favorable circumstances, is about 25,000 feet of lumber per 
day, each. The amount of sawed lumber exported from this 
port for the year 1882 from the mills in this city and from 
those in adjoining counties contiguous to railroads, amounts 
to 40,291,146 feet. 

Of this amount, 9,074,085 feet w^as foreign shipment, 
5,523,400 feet shipped to Baltimore, 9,302,827 feet to New 
York, and the remainder to other coastwise jjorts. The 
home consumption is estimated at between five and six 
million feet. By local demand is not meant the amount 
sold in Wilmington only, but in the adjoining country 
also. By comparing the amount of lumber manufactured 
and received here from other points by rail, with the 
receipts for the preceding year, 1881, it will be found that 
there is a decrease of 5,207,334 feet, which decrease is due 
to the cause mentioned above. 

For a great many years after the erection of steam saw 
mills here the "gang saws" were the only ones used, but 
of late years they have been generally superseded by the 
circular saw, experience having show^n that the latter are 
much more desirable, as well as economical, and they are 
now used by most of the mills in the city and vicinity. 

The quality of the lumber manufactured here is as good 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 199 

as any made elsewhere, and much better for ship-building 
than that of any place farther South, While the lumber 
of Georgia and Florida has a finer grain, and also a thinner 
sap, which makes it more desirable in some cases, still it is 
not as tough or as lasting as our own, and considering the 
variety of uses to which it is put, we can confidently say 
that there is no better lumber in the world than our pitch 
pine. 

The mills now in operation here are as follows : Messrs. 
Edward Kidder & Son, Mr. A. Gf. Wilson, Messrs. Northroi^ 
& Gumming, Messrs. J. H. Chadbourn & Co., and Messrs. 
Parsley & Wiggins. Mr. J. W. Taylor's mill, which was 
located at the foot of Walnut street, was destroyed by fire 
a short time since, but is now being rebuilt. 

The power used in these mills is from 75 to 100 horse 
power, and they are callable of supplying any demand 
that may be made upon them. 

PEANUTS. 

Br. Porcher,— in his Medical Botany of the Southern 
States, published in Charleston, in 1869, — refers to this 
product as ground-nUt ; pindar ; peanut ; goober-nut ; 
{Arachis Jiypogoea)^ brought by the negroes from Africa ; 
and continues : 

The peanut preserves its germinative powers for 40 years. 
Large quantities were exported from Senegal, on account 
of the oil which was exj^ressed from them, and which was 
then, as now, much valued. 

According to the analysis of Pagen, and Henry, it is 
very difficult for the oil to become rancid. In a letter from 
Mr. W. Gr. Simms, in 1863, he writes as follows: 

"You speak of the ground-nut as a substitute for coffee. 
But as coffiee it is a very inferior thing to its use as choco- 
late. The manufacture of chocolate cakes out of the 
ground-nut alone, and without a particle of cocoa, is an 
immense and most profitable part of Northern manufacture. 



200 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

We make it in my family, of a quality not inferior to any 
you buy. To prepare it for tlie table, it is beaten in a 
mortar. At the North, I have been told that the hulls are 
ground up with the nut, and I do not doubt that this is an 
improvement, as qualifying the exceeding richness of the 
nut, which I have usually found too rich prepared as 
chocolate in our way." 

The ground-nut and iDene make rich and nutricious soup, 
and act as substitutes for meat. They are often parched 
and beaten up with sugar, and served as a condiment or 
dessert. The ground-nut is cultivated to some extent in 
the Southern States, and great use is made of it on the 
plantations as an article of food, and for various domestic 
purposes ; it is exported with profit, but troublesome to 
prepare. I am not aware of any use being made in the 
Carolinas, of the oil which it aifords on exi)ression. 

The above was published in Dr. Porcher's report on 
Medical Botany of the South, 1849. Since the war it is 
largely employed. The superintendent of the Rockfish 
Factory, in North Carolina, writes that he has "used the 
peanut oil by the side of the sperm, and that it works fully 
as well." 

The North Carolina Advertiser published the following: 

"The vine, when the pea is removed, makes an excellent 
forage for cattle, and is said to be equal to the best North- 
ern hay. From the nut is ex]3ressed a valuable oil. During 
the war this oil was extensively used in our machine shoi)S, 
and its lubricatory properties are pronounced by compe- 
tent authority to be superior to those of whale oil, for the 
reason that it does not gum at all. One quality of the oil 
is extensively employed in the composition of medicines ; 
another is used for burning purposes, and possesses the 
virtue of not smoking, while a third makes a really excel- 
lent salad condiment. 

Such, and so varied and important, are the uses to which 
this simple product can be devoted— uses which the unin- 
formed, who have, perhaps, regarded it only in the light of 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 201 

an indigestible bulb, would never suspect to proceed from 
its cultivation." 

The oil was expressed, by screw pressure, by parties 
near Manning, S. C. Mr. Dyson obtained three quarts of 
oil from a bushel of the nuts. 

Dr. Wood states that it is a non-drying oil, and will not 
do for painting, but is used for various purposes in the 
arts, for lubricating machinery, and in the manufacture of 
woolen cloth ; and would serve, adds Dr. Wood, for burn- 
ing in lamps, giving even a better light than sperm oil. 
Am. J. Pharm., July, 1860. U. S. Disp., 12th Ed. 

In 1862, Messrs. T. C. and B. G. Worth established a 
peanut oil mill in W^ilmington, and manufactured from the 
peanuts grown in this vicinity, a su|)erior article of oil, 
(but not fully equal to sperm oil,) w^hich they sold to 
nearly all the cotton mills and other manufactories through- 
out the South, during the remaining period of the war. It 
was found an excellent substitute for machine oil, having 
little tendency to gum. 

The entire necessary machinery for hulling the nut and 
expressing the oil, was improvised by the late Mr. Thomas 
L. Colville, of this place, who bore a high reputation as an 
ingenious mechanic. 

The oil sold during the war at from $3 to $30 per gallon, 
in the dej)reciating currency. The cake was considered 
most valuable as fattening food for stock, and brought 
correspondingly high prices. 

The North Carolina peanut crop is grown on the hum- 
mock lands, upon the immediate coast, between the South 
Carolina line and Beanfort, N. C. The average yield per acre 
is about 30 bushels, and it is considered a fairly remunerative 
crop, as the same lands in corn, cotton, or any other crop 
usually grown in this section, would likely not produce, in 
value, one-half the amount. The average crop for the last 
ten years is 125,000 bushels, and the price $1.25 per bushel 
of 28 lbs. The estimate of this year's croj) is 150,000 



202 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

"bushels ; but, on account of low prices and bad weather 
since the harvest, not more than one-fourth of it has yet 
been marketed, 

Wilmington being the most central point, almost the 
entire crop (and much of it in a very crude and unsalable 
condition) is marketed here, and by the dealers put in 
merchantable order, and dealt out to the trade, — the 
markets being mostly Northwestern and Southern cities. 

RICE. 

"Rice,* for which we are indebted to the Island of 
Madagascar, was introduced into Carolina and America at 
once, toward the close of the seventeenth century. A few 
grains were sown in the garden of Landgrave Smith, the 
site of which is now entirely covered by houses and modern 
improvements, in the city of Charleston. Those few grains 
produced many ears, which, being disseminated for seed, 
succeeded in adaptation to the climate ; and the low country 
of South Carolina since has become the centre of the rice- 
growing region. The first seed was white, such as is grown 
in China and Gfuiana to this day, and such as may still be 
seen produced on the uj)lands and inlands of America. 

Sometime before the Revolutionary War the "gold 
seed" rice was introduced, which, owing to its superiority, 
soon entirely superseded the white. It is now the rice of 
commerce, and the only grain referred to herein, when rice 
is mentioned, without being distinguished by some peculiar 
name or characteristic. 

This "gold seed" has undergone improvement in latter 
years. Hence has resulted the i)roduction of a variety 
longer in the grain, but not perceptibly larger otherwise, 
which is highly esteemed by foreign consumers, when it is 
produced in i)erfection, commanding the highest prices in 
market. It is called "long-grain" rice, and was obtained 
from the sowing of part of a single head on the plantation 



♦"ilesourccs of the Southern Fields and Forests," by F. P. Torcher, M. D. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 203 

of the late Hon. Joshua John Ward, of Waccamaw. The 
white rice of the present day measures three-eighths of an 
inch in length, the same in circumference around its shorter 
axis, the grain being in shape an irregular elipsoid, and 
in weight numbers nine hundred and sixty grains to the 
ounce (Troy). The "gold seed," the rice of commerce, 
measures three-eighths of an inch in length, the same in 
circumference, and in weight numbers eight hundred and 
ninety-six grains to the ounce. The "long grain" rice 
measures live-twelfths of an inch in length, three-eighths 
of an inch in circumference, and in weight numbers eight 
hundred and forty grains to the ounce. 

The system of culture for one is suitable for any of 
these varieties. The lirst, it is said, will bear upland cul- 
ture better. The last (long-grain), it is supposed, will 
bear water better. It does not tiller as much, shoots up a 
taller stock and linger head, but does not beai: as many 
grains to the head as the other, and more commonly 
approved kind of "gold seed." 

We begin the preparation for a new crop by (clearing out 
the ditches every third year ; the drains are cleaned out 
every year after plowing) plowing the land as soon after 
the harvest as the fields can be gleaned, and the scattered 
rice left on the surface be sprouted. . The stubble is turned 
under by running a deep furrow, say eight inches. This 
may be continued until the end of January. The sods 
should have the benefit of the entire winter frosts, if pos- 
sible, the influence of which disintegrates and prepares 
them duly for the levelling. Both plowing and harrowing 
are ]3erformed, ordinarily, by oxen — two yoke being re- 
quired if we g9 deeper than six to eight inches ; and two 
yoke get on badly in the swamp. The Tuscany breed 
furnishes the best oxen for our climate. 

In March, or when about preparing to i^lant, the harrows 
will be made to pass over the plowed ground. After deep 
plowing, the "plow turns" should be broken up with the 



204 , WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

spade, sinking the spade as deep as the plow has gone, say 
eight inclies ; an able-bodied man will break up in this 
way, and thoroughly, a surface of fifteen hundred square 
feet in a day. The field should be well drained, however. 
The hoe follows to cut up and break the remaining clods 
and level the surface. The more the soil is comminuted, 
and the surface brought to a common level, the better. 
The trenchers then come in with hoes made for the purpose, 
and trace out with great accuracy the drills in which to 
sow the seed, fourteen, thirteen or twelve inches ax)art from 
centre to centre. They will average (some drawing stake- 
rows and others filling ux) the panels) three-quarters of an 
acre to the hand in a day's work. 

When the land is new the trench should be broad, say 
five inches, and the rice maybe scattered in the trench; 
but for old land, and most of rice land is now old, narrow 
trenching hoes are preferred, opening a drill three inches 
wide. Infected with grass-seed and volunteer rice, old land 
requires close hoeing, and every seed that vegetates outside 
the drill is cut up and destroyed. 

The field is now in high tilth, and resembling somewhat 
a garden spot, is ready for the seed. The sowers, with 
great care, yet with wonderful facility and precision, string 
the seed in the drills, x>utting two and a half or two and a 
quarter bushels to the acre. The labor of sowing depends 
so much ui)on the state of the weather, whether windy or 
moist, or otherwise, it is better not to require any given 
task. Generally each woman will accomx)lish two or three 
tasks and do it well — it should never be done otherwise, for 
the seed cannot be recovered if too thick, nor if too thin 
can the sowing be repeated without needless waste and 
increased irregularity. 

The best hands are chosen to sow rice. When rice is to 
be covered with water, without a previous covering of earth, 
the seed must first be prepared by rolling it in claj^ed 
water. There are many planters who still prefer the old 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 205 

system, covering the seed with earth. In this case, after 
the seed is covered, the water is taken on the field for five 
or six days to sprout the grain, when it is drawn off, and 
is returned only when the sprout, "in the needle state," 
is seen fairly above the ground. 

This, "the point How," is held about four days and then 
drawn off; after which the culture is the same as above 
described throughout. The sowing done, water is forth- 
with admitted (two tides are better than one), and the field 
remains covered until the sprout becomes green and begins 
to fork. The water must then be withdrawn, else the 
plants will be forced to the surface by any slight agitation 
and float away from their position. The reasoning for 'a 
successful substitution of a covering of water for a cover- 
ing of earth in planting rice, and also for the requisition 
of sound and perfectly full seed, will be found in the law 
of germination and growth. 

Professor Johnston thus expresses it: "When a seed 
is committed to the earth, if the warmth and moisture 
are favorable it begins to sprout. It pushes a shoot 
upwards, it thrusts a root downwards ; but until the 
leaf expands and the root has fairly entered the soil, the 
young plant derives no nourishment other than water, 
either from the earth or from the air. It lives on the starch 
and gluten contained in the seed." 

In the case of rice covered with water, the first shoot is 
radical and tends downwards but it does not take root 
until the air is admitted to the leaf, the lungs of the 
plant, then it becomes rooted instantly. If the water be 
not reduced when the sjDrout becomes green, (until the 
sprout is green it cannot bear the rays of the sun,) the 
expanding of the leaf in the water will draw ur) the unfixed 
root and the whole will rise and float upon the surface. 

The water, after floating the trash to the banks, should 
at no time be over deep, lest the process of germination be 
delayed, and with any imi)erfect or defective grains, be 
prevented altogether. 



206 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

In Georgia, on one of Dr. Daniels' i)lantations, near 
Savannah, tlie Italian method has been pursued with a 
good degree of success, namely : The seed is first sprouted, 
then sown broadcast over the field and covered up by the 
harrow, which, being reversed, is drawn over the surface. 
The culture there is with water chiefly. 

In twenty days after, or thereabouts, the rice is hoed 
and flowed deep, the water over-topping the plant for two 
or three days, in order to destroy the young grass just 
springing up among the j^lants, and also the insects that 
may have lodged upon the blades, or which may have been 
generated among the stumps or roots, or stubble. At the 
end of two or three days, the water is slacked down to 
about half the height of the plant, now somewhat stretched. 
At this dej^th it is held until the plants grow strong enough 
to stand erect, and will admit the laborers to walk between 
the trenches and pull out the long grass which shows itself, 
and which will now yield to very slight effort. If any 
rushes appear, they will now be plucked up by the root 
and borne out to the banks. 

Two days after this weeding, the long water will gradu- 
ally be drawn off. In Georgia, and elsewhere perhaj)s, 
this is called the 'stretch flow.' In that State, as well as 
in some parts of Carolina, the practice is common to 
continue the point flow into the 'stretch' or long flow, 
without drawing the water until the latter be over. This 
free use of water, as it may be made to substitute one 
hoeing, may enable the planter to cultivate seven or eight 
acres to the hand, instead of five and six as of old. But, 
the proprietor who sufl*ers this method to be practiced in 
his culture, year by year, if his young crop be not often 
troubled by the maggot or root-worm, will probably find 
his land so polluted with water grasses after several years, 
and so packed as to require rest and change of system to 
ameliorate it. 

A succeeding tide will be taken in and let ofl' imme- 
diately, in order to wash out the ditches. Two men. 



WILMIlSrGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 207 

furnished, each with a long-handled rake of curved iron 
teeth, are put to rake from the ditches all the water-growth 
which impedes the draining, placing it on the side of the 
bank. In eight days (the land by that time should be 
dry) the smaller hoes are used, and the soil is stirred as 
deep as it can be with them. 

The hoe now used has been reduced, latterly, to four 
inches in breadth. The plant just recovering from the 
effects of long water, and taking a dry growth, is putting 
forth new green blades and fresh roots, which, not long 
enough yet to be interfered with by the deep hoeing, very 
soon yield to the grateful influence of the air admitted, 
shoot vigorously into the loosened earth, and nourish a 
"good stalk." 

In the course of fifteen or eighteen days, the field is hoed 
again and weeded. This last hoeing is also done with the 
small hoes, but very lightly, to avoid disturbing the roots 
which are now extended nearly midway between the 
trenches. As the plant is now beginning to joint, the 
laborers will step about with care, for if one be broken at 
the joint it cannot be restored. 

A day or two after this third hoeing, the water is put on 
again, as deep as the last long flow, and is gradually 
increased in depth, after the rice heads have fairly shot 
out. 

This is called the 'lay-by' flow. Some planters have 
this flow very shallow, insisting that a deep flow breeds 
worms, to the injury of the plant before it has shot out, 
in which case the only remedy is to dry. Up to the time 
of this flow, is about ninety days for rice sown the first 
week in April. After this, to the period of maturity, is 
from sixty to seventy days, during which the water 
is often changed, and kept fresh, but is never entirely 
withdrawn until the grain be ripe for the harvest. The 
improved and best means of keeping the water fresh, 
is to furnish the field with two trunks— one to admit fresh 



208 WiLMINtlTON^, iS^ORTH 0ArvOLiN"A. 

water at every flood tide, and the other to void it with the 
ebb, so tliat twice in every twenty-four hours there is 
obtained a slight current through the field. This, besides 
lessening the infection of the atmosphere {miasmata) by 
stagnant water, keeps the roots of the plant cool and 
healthy, though it i^ostpones the ripening of the rice some 
five or eight days. 

Meantime, should any grass have escaped the i3r8vious 
hoeings and weedings, it will show its crest before the rice 
matures and be i^lucked up by the roots. All white rice 
will be stripped off by hand. 

Harvest. — And now the grain is ripe for the sickle. The 
rice is cut a day before you will say it is fully ripe. For 
rice sown A]}yiI first, the harvest begins usually from the 
first to the tenth of September. The water is drawn off 
over-night. Soon after the rising of a bright autumn sun, 
the reapers are seen amid the thick hanging grain, shoulder 
high, mowing it down with the old-fashioned sickle. 
Before the dew is all gone, the rice is laid prostrate, even 
and orderly across the i)orous stubble. The next daj^, 
when quite dry of dew, it is tied up in sheaves, and borne 
away to the threshing yard, where it is well stacked before 
the night dew falls heavy. This last heavy but gleeful 
labor completes the field culture of the rice plant." 

During the last few years, the reclamation of old rice 
lands on the Cape Fear, many of which have been restored 
to a high and profitable state of cultivation, has been one 
of our principal industries — the i^resent acreage in the 
vicinity of Wilmington on river lands being about 2,000 
acres, Avhich will be increased next season about 700 acres. 
The receipts have, however, fallen much below those of 
last year, as will be seen from the table appended : 

Receipts last year upland rice. .66,313 bushels at this date, 
this " " " ..37,382 " " " 



Decrease 28,931 



WILMINGTON", NOKTII CAROLINA. 209 

Receipts tide-water rice last year 51, 000 bushels at this date. 
" " " this " 41,191 '• " " 



Decrease 9,809 " " " 

The cause of this decrease is variously accounted for, but 
it is most likely owing to the risk consequent upon a 
threatened or possible change in the tariff laws, planters 
being indisposed to prei)are new lands with prospective 
foreign competition, which would inevitably render the 
cultivation of American rice hopelessly unprofitable. 

Prices for paddy have been ruling lower by 15 to 30 
cents per bushel of 45 pounds, than last crop, and clean 
rice from 1 to IJ cents per ^oound decline. 

Washington, North Carolina, has sent to this market 
10,000 bushels, as compared with 33,000 last year. These 
receipts naturally belong to Washington, where there is a 
a large rice mill, and would leave us with 27,000 bushels 
white rice. The majority of these receipts have come from 
Eastern Carolina, and princix)ally from Newbern and 
Beaufort. 

Groldsboro has sent to this market 4,000 bushels ; War- 
saw, Wilson and Mt. Olive have shipped about 5,000 
bushels. Some of our receipts have been sent to Northern 
mills, but not over 9,000 bushels. Five thousand bushels 
have been shipped into South Carolina, and the remainder 
milled in our city. 

The clean rice from this port is chiefly shipped to New 
York, Boston and Philadel|)liia, where it receives an appre- 
ciative market, and is well known as the best rice milled 
in this country. The erection of a mill in Wilmington has 
made a market for all grades, and planters are not com- 
pelled to ship their goods to other cities, and undergo the 
many losses already known to consignments. Should 
Congress allow the present duty to remain, it is probable 
that nearly all the old rice land in this section will be 
reclaimed and the Cape Fear regain its ancient reputation 



210 



WILMESGTOX. >fOBTn CAKOUXA. 



with reference to this most profitable and respectable 
industiy. 

I app^id herewith a carefolly prepared table with refer- 
ence to the Cape Fear plantations and prodact, and proba- 
ble increase ::r nfx: vfiir 



>^>fZ OF PtASTATIOX. 



I III|me 



PLAXmiiS- 



«jr::n. 

TrainBte 

FiirOiaks 



Kendal aad I^llipot — 

Oaresdoa 

Foint Peter and Forks. .. 

Feiii. 

BelTidete 



Greea I^and. 

MaDoiy- 

Dndleys. 



CMd Town Creek. 
Hilton. 
AVoodbom.. 
Lyiins 



Thcwnbeny. 
BeUviDe. 



BeanClMix.. 
GliMtoabmy. 



Sij S,TW ._ N-av::,5-i i^- r : 

' I 350 *6,000'; I Jno. F. GarreU. 

■ «l 50 Franos M. Moore. 

• »> 7\.* Fred. Kidder. 

i>> Z.Ckv — S. It. Fremont. 

1S«> 6.a«<» 1&5 J. W. Atkinson. 

.„ 1«» i-50& Geo. W. Kidder. 

.... S*' 2.€fJ» -_ J. D. McRae. 

„ fti ±¥f* -y* Wm. Larkins. 

To ±.¥*} Wm. HanklQs;. 

m t,4>yj 3> B. A. HalJett. 

r9i> ±,c«io 

-30 1.3» ._ T. A. Watson and 

„ 75 238— R- B. Wood. [Denni 

_' j 225 D. D. Barber. 

.„ ' 1» H. M. Bowden. 

_' 100 * 400 D. L. RoseeL 

^ lrt> i«W« • A. W. Reiffer. 

J i - 



PROVISIONS. 

In former years the trade in provisions was done by and 
through wholesale grocers in this market, who not only 
supplied the retail demand of the city, bot who furnished 
the planters and distillers in onr conntiy section for a raditis 
of sereral hundred miles. Of late years the trade has 
fallen into the channel of prorision brokers, who, at a 
small rate of commission, sell to the city dealers, and at 
times to the outside trade, their daily requirements of com, 
meat hay, flour, oats, and other staple articles, at current 



WILMIXGTOX, NOP.TU CAROLINA. 211 

prices in Chicago, Louisville and other supply markets, 
plus the bare expense of freight and charges. 

The present annual consumption of provisions in this 
market is estimated, upon actual receipts, as follows : 

Corn 5<;n>,0Oj bushels. 

Meat lo.OXJ boxes. 

Hay 1,5<X) tons. 

Flour 5*\(XX) barrels. 

Oats 15,000 bushels . 

This enormous trade shows that the farmers and other 
consumers of provisions in and around WUmington pay 
annually to the Chicago. Xew York and other remote 
markets, the sum of one million five hundred thousand 
dollars a ^ear fur provisions which ought to be raised by 
our farmers themselves. Is it a wonder that Xorth Caro- 
lina remains poor, or that our farmers who persist in 
planting cotton and working turpentine, to the utter neglect 
of provisions and provender, are always behind i Perhaps 
the current low prices of cotton this year, compared with 
the unreasonably high cost of provisions, will teach our 
people an important lesson, which they have hitherto been 
slow to learn. 

FISHERIES. 

There are about fifty fisheries between Xew River and 
Federal Point, the proceeds of nearly all of which find a 
market in Wilmington, though a i)ortion is carried to 
Beaufort and Morehead City; the bulk of the catch is, 
however, brought here, and nearly all of thie fisheries 
on this side of Xew River, deal entirely with this place. 
Eight or ten years ago, from 4,Ch>3 to C,»XX> barrels of 
mullets were brought to this port froift these fisheries, but 
of late years the amount has been greatly reduced. 

A fishery near the mouth of New River, which formerly 
yielded during the season, from 2,000 to 3,0<X> barrels, is 
now worthless, owing principally to a change in the chan- 
nel, which has become so filled up with sand that it cannot 



212 WILMINGTON, NOllTII CAROLINA. 

be used, — consequently the fisli have been diverted from it 
entirely. 

In speaking of barrels offish, it is to be understood that 
though they are termed or called barrels, yet they are very 
small, averaging generally not more than 80 lbs. net, and 
and bringing in the market, from $3 to $4 a barrel. 

The fisheries of Messrs. W. E. Davis & Son are located 
at Zeke's Island, adjoining the works at New Inlet, where 
they have three seines at work, and a trap, ingeniously 
contrived for the purpose, in which many fish are taken. 

The fishery is carried on outside the bar and not in the 
river, and the quantity caught during the last season 
amounted to about 1,500 barrels of mullets, exclusive of 
other kinds of fish taken in the seines. These mullets 
are salted and barrelled, and are worth from $3.50 to $4.25 
a barrel, as per quality and size. 

All other varieties are shipped fresh, on ice, to the North 
and to points in the interior of the State, and during the 
season about 300,000 pounds of fresh fish are shipped by 
this firm to nine different States, the bulk, however, going 
to the cities of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore ; 
and as this industry is not yet fully developed, what 
results may we not expect when increased experience is 
brought to the assistance of energy and capital. 

In addition to their fisheries, the firm of Davis & Son 
have erected at Zeke's Island, works for the manufacture 
Oil and Fish-scrap, the latter said to be an admirable 
fertilizer. 

The season for mullets is during the months of August 
September, October an4 November ; and for shad, during 
those of February, March and April. About 11,000 shad 
are brought here during the season, value about 14,000 ; 
however, not more than one third of the catch is disposed 
of here, the remainder being shipped in every direction, 
chiefiy North, and always by rail. The waters of the Cape 
Fear produce as fine shad as can be found anywhere, and 
they are eagerly sought after in the Northern markets. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 213 

The sturgeon fishery is also getting to be an important 
industry. During the season, from the middle of March 
to the last of October, an average of 2,000 pounds a week 
of that fish is shipped from this port to New York, where 
there is a constant demand for it at remunerative prices. 

It is but recently that this fish has become an article of 
commerce. Formerly it was regarded as worthless and was a 
great annoyance to fishermen, getting entangled in their 
nets, and breaking them, and it was considered as a 
nuisance only. A year or two ago, however, a shix3ment 
was made to New York as an experiment; the fish attracted 
attention, and the aggregate of the business since is remark- 
able,— amounting now to more than 90,000 pounds during 
t-he season, — a most profitable industry, as it is derived 
from a source hitherto regarded as worthless. They are 
shipped in ice, like other fish, and by rail. 

It is said that the Cape Fear sturgeon is fully equal to 
that taken elsewhere, and prized esi^ecially for the roe, 
which is carefully cleansed and rubbed to a pulp, and 
having been mixed with salt, it is then sold at a high j)rice 
as Caviare, a food highly prized by Continental i^eople, 
particularly the Russians, who monopolize the trade. The 
fiesh of the sturgeon is also dried and smoked in small 
strips, and commands a ready sale, not unfrequently under 
the name of smoked salmon. 

The sturgeon is spoken of in England, to this day, as a 
royal fish, having in olden times been served with great 
pomj^, and esteemed most delicate in flesh and flavor. It was 
also given a conspicuous place in the feasts of the ancient 
Greeks and Romans. Among our Cape Fear people, how- 
ever, it is considered the coarsest and most vulgar dish 
our market aff'ords. 

Our waters furnish nearly every variety of fish ; among 
which are shad, mullets, blue fish or skipjack, speckled 
trout, pig fish, (one of the most delicate that swims), red 
and black drum, black fish, rock or bass, Spanish mackerel 



214 WILMINGTON^, KORTII CAROLINA. 

8un iisli, spots, croakers, sbeepbead, flounders, whiting, 
sera, boneto, (tbree varieties), tarpin, (king of the sbad), 
tautog, (weigbing from 20 to 40 lbs.), catfisb, &c,, and also 
various kinds of fresb water flsb, — trout, percb, &c. 

In 1714, Lawson gave the names of fisbin Nortb Carolina 
as follows : 

"Whales, several sorts, thrashers, devil fish, sword fish, 
crampois, bottle noses, porpoises, sharks, (two sorts), dog 
fish, Spanish mackerel, cavallies, bonetos, blue fish, drum, 
(red), drum, (black), angel fish, bass, or rock fish, sheep 
head, plaice, flounder, soles, mullets, shad, fat backs, 
guard, (white),guard, (green), scate, or sting ray, thornback, 
cougar eels, lamprey eels, eels, sunfish, toad fish, sea tench, 
trout of the salt water,croakers,herring,smelts,shad, breams, 
taylors. The fresh water fish are : Sturgeon, pike, trouts, 
gudgeon, perch, English perch, white perch, brown, or 
Welchmen perch, flat, and mottled, or Irishmen perch, 
small and flat, with red spots, called round robbins, carp, 
roach, dace, loaches, sucking fish, catfish, grindals, old 
wives, fountain fish, white fish. The shell fish are : Large 
crabs, called stone crabs, smaller flat crabs, oysters, great 
and small, cockles, clams, muscles, conchs, scallops, man 
of noses, perriwinkles, or wilks, sea snail horns, fiddlers, 
runners, Spanish, or pearl oysters, fiattings, tortoise and 
terebin, finger fish, shrimps. Those of the fresh water are 
crawfish and muscles." 

The extent of the oyster business is also worthy of con- 
sideration. Our best oysters come from New Eiver, 
adjoining the county of Onslow. The beds are said to be 
inexhaustible, and there ^ are no better oysters in the 
country. Myrtle Grove oysters are smaller than the New 
Eiver, yet compare favorably in flavor with the bulk of 
those grown elsewhere. 

From 350 to 400 gallons of oysters are received here 
during a week of seven days ; about 50 gallons a day, and 
during the months of October, November, December and 



WILMINGT0I7, NOKTII CAROLINA. 215 

January, from 1,200 to 1,500 gallons a month are shipped 
to other points; after that time the demand gradually falls 
off, and not more than a fourth of that amount is sold. 
The price varies as to quality, from 65 cents to $1.00 per 
gallon ; there are none shipped in the shell. 

The terrapin is caught in our waters, and has become 
almost indispensable to the epicure. The diamond back 
terrapin is the most valuable of the species. They are 
caught at the mouth of the river and in all the bays of our 
Sounds. It is safe to say that the llesli is worth $1.00 a 
pound — their scarcity makes them so valuable ; not more 
than 60 dozen were caught here last season for market. 
They are kept in water pens for propagation, and can be 
domesticated as easily as a pig or fowl. Though not 
abundant as yet, with proper care and attention they can 
be greatly increased, and will be a source of i)rofit in the 
future to those who undertake their proi)agation. It is a 
matter of surprise to many that the trade in terrapins and 
soft-shelled crabs is so much neglected by our fishermen. 
A small investment of capital, backed by careful industry 
in the propagation of oysters, terrapins and crabs on our 
sea-coast, would undoubtedly yield large returns. 

THE DRY GOODS BUSINESS. 

It would astonish the old-time citizens, say those who 
flourished here about fifty years ago, could they return to 
the scene of their labors and see, not only the vast increase 
in the dry goods trade of Wilmington, in which many of 
them were engaged, but also the entirely different manner 
in which the business is conducted. Then, at all the retail 
dry goods stores, credit, generally for twelve months, was 
the rule and cash the exception. Now, the reverse is true, 
or if credit is given it is for so short a time (scarcely ever 
more than thirty days) that it is regarded as equivalent to 
cash. The manner in which the business was then con- 



216 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

ducted would not "be tolerated by the mercliants of this 
progressive age at this time. 

To mention but one custom whicli was universally i^rac- 
ticed : whenever a lady customer was not disposed to do 
her own shopping, a servant was despatched to the propri- 
etors of diflferent stores, with instructions to send by said 
servant, certain articles of merchandise which she desired 
to see, and, as was frequently the case, the costliest goods, 
such as laces, silks, piece goods, etc., could be seen at 
almost any hour of the day in huge bundles deftly balanced 
upon the heads of colored servants, passing to and fro upon 
the streets. It was the universal custom, and though of 
course a great annoyance at times to the proi^rietors, could 
not well be avoided ; it is to be borne in mind, however, 
that that was prior to tlie era here of railroads and tele- 
grajihs ; and besides, wiiat could be done then with 
impunity and without fear of loss, from the smallness of 
the population of the town, could not now be attemj)ted, 
even if our merchants were so inclined, owing to the 
changed condition of our social affairs. It is estimated 
that the yearly business of the town in those days did not 
amount to more than two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars, including all classes of goods that were usually kept 
in stores in those days. The princii^al dealers of that time 
were Alexander Anderson, John Wooster, Kyle & Dawson, 
Wright & Savage, W. & Z. Latimer, W. A. Williams, 
Samuel Shuter ; and the business ^vas confined to a retail 
local trade and to the plantations adjoining the town. Such 
an institution as a wholesale establishment for dry goods was 
not only unknown, but never dreamed of. As evidencing 
the wonderful improvement in that business between the 
Wilmington of the past and the Wilmington of the present, 
it is only necessary to mention the following : 

The annual sales of dry goods in Wilmington at the 
present time will not fall short of a million and a half of 
dollars, including sales at wholesale and retail. There are 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 217 

one or two jobbing houses, one particularly, whose sole 
business is jobbing goods. The facilities here for buying 
at wholesale are. equally as good as in Richmond or Balti- 
more, and the luices will compare favorably with either of 
those points. It should be borne in mind that the jobbing 
business, which was formerly carried on almost entirely in 
New York and other Northern cities, is now conducted by 
houses located in Southern cities. They are familiar with 
the wants of the surrounding country, are known to the 
people of the neighborhood, sell ux)on as good terms as 
can be obtained in Northern markets, and hence control 
the trade, for our people are becoming more disposed every 
year to trade at home, other things being equal, than 
abroad. There are jobbing houses in Richmond, in Charles- 
ton and in Savannah, two or three in each city, and these 
command the trade from numerous points in the South, and 
in consequence the immense business heretofore done in 
New York, which formerly had been the centre of that 
trade, has greatly declined. It must not be supposed, 
however, that there has been any decrease in the volume of 
business transacted in that city. Those houses which for- 
merly did a jobbing business, now^ confine themselves to 
packages, that is, selling by iDackage, and not by piece. 

In estimating the extent of the dry goods business of 
Wilmington it is to be understood that a comparatively^ 
new business, that of ready-made clothing, is included. 
Goods of as fine quality as can be found elsewhere can 
always be obtained in oar city, and it may be as w^ell to 
state that the custom of the surrounding country which 
seeks its supplies at this jooint is not only desirable, but 
eagerly sought after by other places. Nearly every variety 
of goods known to the trade is kept in stock, and it may 
surprise some to learn that last season nearly, if not quite, 
five thousand bales (not pieces) of domestic and plaids, the 
products of the factories of our own State, were disposed 
of in this market alone* This fact is extremely gratifying, 



218 WILMINGTON, NOETII CAROLINA. 

as it shows that our own fabrics are in greater demand than 
those manufactured elsewhere ; and it follows, as a natural 
sequence, that the quality must be better, or there would 
not be so great a demand for them. There is another and 
distinct branch of business which has grown to large 
dimensions, and deserves special notice — the shoe trade. 
For many years there was but one shoe store in Wilming- 
ton, and that was wholly confined to the retail trade. The 
business has so rapidly increased within the past few years 
that it amounts to at least half a million dollars annually. 
In former years there was simj)ly a local demand, now a 
large amount of caxntal is required to meet the increasing 
demands of the business, and wholesale buyers find in our 
market large and well selected stocks from which to make 
selections. It is increasing every year, and as new avenues 
of trade are opened up around us, converging towards this 
point, we have every reason to anticipate a large increase 
in that particular branch of business, and a very valuable 
adjunct to the prosperity of our city. 

These evidences of the jDrosperity of Wilmington must 
surely be gratifying to all who feel an interest in her f uture^ 
Though they have been gradual, they are none the less 
remarkable, and we have every reason to believe that they 
will continue to increase. Revolutions do not go back- 
ward, old things have long since passed away, and if all 
things have not yet become new, they are certainly under- 
going a rapid transformation. The tide of prosi:»erity is 
swee}3ing around us on every side. Be it our care to take 
advantage of the fiood that leads to fortune, and place our 
old town full breast high in the front rank of commercial 
success. 

FERTILIZERS. 

The movement of gnano from Wilmington, during the 
year 1882, is shown by the accompanying tables, which 
indicate a business aggregating about 321,786 bags, valued 
at 11,287,144. These statistics have not hitherto been 



WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 219 

recorded, and the figures have been ascertained after much 
research and carefulness. The value is e stimated as nearly 
as possible from prices quoted for the several brands and 
classes of fertilizers referred to. It will be seen that the 
Carolina Central Railroad carries largely in excess of any 
other means of transportation from this market. 

FERTILIZERS : 
Per Carolina Central Rail Road, 1882. 

^iiauo 124,320 Bags. 

Kainit 34^848 " 

Phosphate 16 7(50 " 

Dissolved Bone ll'sil " 

Chemical Fertilizers *]'* 1*912 " 

Cotton Fertilizers .* 2002 " 

Lime ;.".".".".'; '678 " 

Stone 50 u 

Eureka lOO " 

Acid ■..*.■.*."."..; 450 '< 

Sulphate 1 '( 

Total 191,962 " 



Per Wilmington, Columbia & Augusta Rail Road, 1882. 

January ,- 13,092 Bags. 

February 35^638 

March 38,783 

April 6,908 

May 192 

October o^ 

November 80 

December 2 550 

Total 97,263 



Per Wilmington & Weldon Rail Road, 1882. 

January 1^320 Bags. 

February 2 152 " 

March 3'750 " 

April 2,'085 " 

May 120 " 

June 20 " 

August 957 " 

Sexjtember 827 " 

October 200 " 

November , I37 " 

December 9,377 " 

Total 20,945 " 



220 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA, 

Per Steamees up the Cape Fear River, 1882, 

Guano 8,409 Bags. 

Chemicals 881 " 

Kaiuit 1,232 " 

Phosphate 679 " 

Fertilizers 288 " 

Bones 127 " 

Total 11,616 •' 

Lime 825 Bbls. 

TURPENTINE PRODUCTS. 

F. Andrew Micliaux, in his treatise on the resinons 
trees of North America, published in Paris, in 1819, says : 
' "The resinous product of the pine is of six sorts, viz : 
turpentine, scrapings, spirit of turpentine, rosin, tar and 
j)itch. The two last are delivered in their natural state; 
the others are modified by the agency of fire in certain 
modes of preparation. More particularly : turpentine is 
the sap of the tree obtained by making incisions in its 
trunk. It begins to distil about the middle of March, 
when the circulation commences, and flows with increasing 
abundance as the weather becomes warmer, so that July 
and August are the most productive months. When the 
circulation is slackened by the chills of autumn, the oper- 
ation is discontinued, and the remainder of the year is 
occupied in preparatory labours for the following season, 
which consist— first, in making the boxes. This is done in 
January and February : in the base of each tree, about 3 
or 4 inches from the ground, and of preference, on the 
south side, a cavity is formed, commonly of the capacity of 
three pints, but x)roportioned to the size of the trunk, of 
which it should occui')y a quarter of the diameter ; on 
stocks more than 6 feet in circumference, two, and some- 
times four boxes are made on opposite sides. Next comes 
the raking, or the clearing of the ground at the foot of the 
trees from leaves and herbage, by which means they are 
secured against the fires that are often kindled in the woods 
by the carelessness of travellers and wagoners. 



WIL3IINGT0N, NORTH CAROLINA. 221 

If tlie flames gain the boxes already impregnated witli 
turi^entine, tliey are rendered useless, and others must be 
made. Notching is merely making at the sides of the box 
two oblique gutters, about 3 inches long, to conduct into it 
the sap that exudes from the edges of the wound. In the 
interval of a fortnight, which is emploj^ed in this operation, 
the first boxes become tilled with sap. A wooden shovel 
is used to transfer it to pails, which in turn are emptied 
into casks placed at convenient distances. To increase the 
product, the upper edge of the box is cJiqyj^edonQQ a week, 
the bark and a ijortion of the alburnum being removed to 
the depth of four concentrical circles. The boxes fill every 
three weeks. The turpentine thus procured is the best, 
and is called pure dipping. 

The cldppin.gs extend the first year a foot above the box, 
and as the distance increases, the operation is more fre- 
quently repeated, to remove the sap coagulated on the 
surface of the wound. The closing of the pores, occasion- 
ed by continued rains, exacts the same remedy ; and it is 
remarked that the produce is less abundant in moist and 
cool seasons. After 5 or 6 years the tree is abandoned ; 
the upper edge of the wound becomes cicatrized, but the 
bark is never restored sufficiently for the renewal of the 
process. 

( It is reckoned that 250 boxes yield a barrel containing 
320 lbs. Some persons charge a single negro with the care 
of 4,000 or 4,500 trees of one box ; others, of only 3,000, 
which is an easy task. In general, 3,000 trees yield, in 
ordinary years, 75 barrels of turpentine and 25 ot scraping, 
which supposes the boxes to be emptied five or six times 
in the season. The scraping is a coating of sap which 
becomes solid before it reaches the boxes, and which is 
taken off in the fall and added to the last runnings. In 
November, 1807, the pure cli2:>pingwiis sold at Wilmington 
at $3 a barrel, and the scraping a quarter less. 

In 1804, the exportation to the Northern States, and to 



223 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

the English possessions, amounted to 77,827 barrels. 
During peace it comes even to Paris, where it is called 
Boston turpentine. Throughout the United States it is 
used to make yellow soap of a good quality. The con- 
sumption in England is great, and, in the official state- 
ments, the value imported in 1807 is $465,828 ; in 1805, 
Liverpool alone received 40,294 barrels, and in 1807, 18,924 
barrels. It was sold there in August, 1807, at $3 a hundred 
l^ounds, and after the American embargo, in 1808, at $8 or 
$9. Oddy omits, in his list of articles exported from 
Archangel and Stockholm to Great Britain, the resinous • 
product of the pine, which has amounted to 100,000 barrels 
of tar in a year. • 

A great deal of spirits of turpentine is made in North 
Carolina : it is obtained by distilling the turpentine in 
large copper retorts, which are of an imperfect shape, being 
so narrow at the mouth as to retard the operation. Six bar- 
rels of turpentine are said to afford one cask or 122 quarts 
of the spirit. It is sent to all parts of the United States 
even to the Western Country, by way of Philadelphia, to 
England, and to France, where it is preferred as less odor- 
ous, to that made near Bordeaux. In 1804, 19,526 gallons 
were exported from North Carolina. The residuum of the 
distillation is rosin, which is sold at one-third of the price 
of turpentine. The exportation of this substance, in 1804, 
was 4,675 barrels. 

All the tar of the Southern States is made from dead 
wood of the long-leaved pine, consisting of trees prostrated 
by time or by the lire kindled annually in the forests, of 
the summits of those that are felled for timber, and of limbs 
broken off by the ice, which sometimes overloads the 
leaves. 

It is worthy of remark that the branches of resinous 
trees consist almost wholly of wood, of which the organi- 
zation is even more perfect than in the body of the tree ; 
the reverse is observed in trees with deciduous leaves : the 



WILMnS^GTO:N', NORTH CABOLIKA. 223 

explanation of the phenomenon I leave to i^ersons skilled 
in vegetable physiology. 

As soon as vegetation ceases in any part' of the tree, its 
consistence speedily changes; the sap decays, and the heart, 
already impregnated with resinous juice, becomes sur- 
charged to such a degree as to double its weight in a year: 
the accumulation is said to be much greater after 4 or 5 
> years: the general fact may be proved by comparing the 
wood of trees recently felled, and of others long since 
dead. 

To procure the tar, a Tciln is formed in a part of the forest 
abounding in dead wood : this is first collected, stript of 
the sap, and cut into billets two or three feet long and 
about three inches thick ; a task which is rendered long 
and difficult by the knots. The next step is to prepare a 
place for piling it : for this purpose a circular mound is 
raised, slightly declining from the circumference to the 
centre, and surrounded with a shallow ditch. The diameter 
of the pile is proportioned to the quantity of wood which 
it is to receive : to obtain 100 barrels of tar, it should be 
IS or 20 feet wide. In the middle is a hole with a conduct 
leading to the ditch, in which is formed a receptacle for the 
tar as it flows out. Upon the surface of the mound, 
beaten hard and coated with clay, the wood is laid round 
in a circle like rays. 

The pile, when finished, may be compared to a cone 
truncated at two-thirds of its height, and reversed, being 
20 feet in diameter below, 25 or 30 feet above, and 10 or 12 
feet high. It is then strewed with pine leaves, covered 
with earth, and contained at the sides with a slight cincture 
of wood. This covering is necessary in order that the fire 
kindled at the top may penetrate to the bottom with a slow 
and gradual combustion : if the whole mass was rapidly 
inflamed, the operation would fail and the labour in part 
be lost : in fine, nearly the same precautions are exacted 
in this process as are observed in Europe in making char^ 



224 WiLMiNGTOlsr, l^ORTIl CAKOLIjSTA. 

coal. A kiln wlilcli is to afford 100 or 130 barrels of tar, is 
8 or 9 days in burning. 

As the tar flows off into the ditch, it is emptied into 
casks of 30 gallons, which are made of the same species of 
wood. 

Pitch is tar reduced by evaporation : it should not be 
diminished beyond half its bulk to be of a good quality. 
{ In 1807, tar and pitch were exported to England from the 
United States, to the amount of $265,000 ; the tar was sold 
in Liverpool, in August of the same year, at $4. 67 a barrel, 
and when the embargo became known, at $5.56; from 
which inferences may be drawn to the advantage of the 
United States. At Wilmington the ordinary i^rice is from 
$1.75 to $2.20 a barrel. Oddy informs us that the tar brought 
to England between 1786 and 1799, came in equal proportions 
from Russia, Sweden and the United States ; only a very 
small quantity was drawn from Denmark.^! The Swedish 
tar is the most highly esteemed in commerce, and next that 
of Archangel ; that of the United States is considered 
inferior to both, which is owing to its being made from 
dead wood, while that of Euroj)e is extracted from trees 
recently felled. The tar of Carolina is said also to contain 
earth ; this can be attributable only to the want of care in 
preparing the receptacles ; if the same j^ains were taken in 
the fabrication, it would probably equal that of Euroj^e, 
though it must be considered that the tar of Russia and 
Sweden is produced by a different tree, a native of the 
north of Europe. It has already been remarked that in 
the United States this manufacture is confined to the 
maritime i^art of North Carolina, and to a small tract of Vir- 
ginia ; but according to the rate of consumption in America 
and Great Britain, the product would not long suffice if all 
the extensive regions covered with the long-leaved pine were 
made to contribute to this object, for the dead wood is said 
not to be renewed upon a tract that has been cleared, in less 
than ten or twelve years. It might be advantageous to 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 225 

make use of green wood, or purposely to strip the trees of 
their bark ; and perhaps in this way supplies might be 
obtained equivalent to the demand of commerce. Great 
benefit would result from stripping the pines of a certain 
diameter of their bark ; they would pass completely into 
the resinous state in fifteen months, and would be proper 
for posts and many other uses which require strong and 
lasting wood. This experiment, which I should have tried 
when I was last in Sonth Carolina if the season had not 
been too far advanced, should be made in April or the 
beginning of Mayj while the sap is in active circulation, 
and the liber or inner bark should be exactly removed." 

Since Michaux wrote the foregoing treatise three-quarters 
of a century ago, there has been but little change in the 
preparation for market of these far-famed products of our 
State. The cavity or box is now made to hold two pints. 
The notching of his day is now called cornering, and instead 
of a wooden shovel for the removal of sap, an iron imple- 
ment, called a dipper, is used. The pure dipping referred 
to is now known as virgin turpentine ; and instead of a 
negro being "charged with the care of 4,000 to 4,500 
boxes," a good hand is now expected to chip 10,000 to 
12,000 trees throughout the season, while the dipping is 
delegated to other laborers. 

( The price of "scrape" is now only three-fifths of the 
value of "dip." Eight barrels of crude turpentine (pure 
dipping) now yield one cask of 48 gallons spirits ; and / 
while theexi^orts of spirits turpentine from North Carolina ^ 
in 1804 were 19,526 gallons, they now amount to over 
5,300,000 gallons. The exports of rosin in 1804 (4,075 bar- 
rels) have since been increased to 554,000 barrels.^ ■ 

For the information of those who imagine that our influ- 
ence as a market for naval stores is waning, and that the 
trade is rapidly moving southward to the new districts in 
Georgia, I append the following official statistics by way 
of comparison : 



226 



WILMINGTON^, NORTn CAROLIl^A. 



Comparative Statement of Receipts of Naval Stores for the crop years to 
March loth of 1882 and 1883, at Wilmington, Charleston and Savannah. 

1883. 



Makch 10th. 



Wilmington. 
Charleston... 
Savannah 



Spirits. 


Rosin. 


Tar. 


Crude. 


85,035 
70,943 
8B,573 


406,519 
285,149 
378,244 


65,250 


65,206 







Total 
Bbis. 



622,010 
356,092 
464,817 



1882. 



March 10th. 



Wilmington. 
Charleston.... 
Savannah 



Spirits. 



Eosiu. 



83,148 
51,123 
52.695 



419,995 
215,725 

244,5891 



Tar. I Crude. 

I 



59,511 



Total. 
Bbls. 



85,1181 047,772 

I 266,848 

i 297,284 



In an old book containing the private correspondence of 
Daniel A¥ebster, I find a letter dated Wilmington, May 0, 
1847, as follows : 

"At 1 o'clock yesterday, ten miles from this city, we met 
a special train, with a large deputation, headed by ex- 
Governor Dudley. The weather was bad, and the wind 
east, and I was rather easily persuaded to stay over a day. 
The Governor brought us to his own house, where we are 
grandly lodged. I go to the hotel to meet the citizens at 
11 o'clock, and go off at half-past 2 this P. M., if the wind 
goes down. At present it blows rather hard. This is an 
active little city, built on the east side of the river, on sand 
hills. The good people are Whigs, but out of the city, 
and all round for fifty miles, it is a region whose politics 
are personified by Mr. McKay. * " '-* ' There is a thing, 
Harry, which thou hast often heard of, and it is known to 
many in this land by the name of pitch,' etc., etc. We 
are here in the midst of this very thing, at the very centre 
of the tar and turpentine region. The pines are long-leaved 
pines. In one of these, a foot from the bottom, a notch is 
cut, and its capacity enlarged and its shape fashioned a 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 227 

little, SO as to hold the liquid, by chiseling, and then it is 
called the ' box.' Above the box the bark is cut off, for a 
foot or so, and the turpentine oozes out of the tree on to 
this smooth surface, and then runs slowly into the box. 
The box holds about a quart. In a good large tree it will 
till five times a season. Sometimes there are two boxes in 
one tree, so that some trees will yield ten quarts a year. 
But the greatest yield is the first year : after that it is 
gradual!}^ diminished, and in seven or eight years the tree 
dies, or will yield no more turpentine. Tar is made by 
bringing together wood, full of turpentine, either trees or 
knots, and i)ieces picked up in the woods, and burning it 
in a pit, just as charcoal is made, then running it off into a 
hole prepared for it, in the ground. At the present price 
of the article, this is said to be the best business now doing 
in the State. I am told good, fresh, well- timbered pine 
lands can be bought for $1.25 to $1.50 per acre. '^' '^ * 
One barrel of turpentine distilled makes six gallons spirits. 
The residuum, or resin, is not of much value, say twenty- 
five cents a barrel. Tar and turpentine are now high, and 
the business good." 

ADULTERATION OF SPIRITS TURPENTINE. 

Some months ago our Exchange received a visit from 
Mr. Ingall, of England, the senior partner of Messrs. 
Ingall, Phillips & Co., proprietors of the principal tanks 
in London, where sjDirits turpentine and petroleum are 
stored. Mr. Ingall subsequently made a careful tour of 
our entire turpentine-producing countrj^^, including South 
Carolina, Georgia and Florida, his object being not only to 
ascertain the probable future product of turpentine by 
judging himself of our resources, but to investigate alleged 
or suspected attempts at adulteration, which the high 
prices current for spirits turpentine naturally encouraged 
in a country where petroleum and rosin oil, in a refined 
state, offered so many profitable inducements for adaptation. 



328 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

Mr. Ingall informed me that until recently, no regular 
chemical tests had been ai:)plied to cargoes of spirits tur- 
pentine sent them for storage or tanking, and that various 
attemi)ts had been made to pass a spurious article upon the 
London market, which led to the engagement by them of 
the services of Prof. Henry E. Armstrong, Ph. D., F. R. S., 
a well-known chemical expert of London, who now analyzes 
with great care every shij)ment received at the tanks for 
that market. 

From these gentlemen I have before me, and subject to 
the insj)ectJon of any members of the Exchange, six sam- 
ples, labelled as follows : (1) Average sample turpentine 
(simits). (2) Average sample petroleum. (3) Turpentine 
(spirits) and 10 per cent, benzine. (4) Turpentine (spirits) 
and 10 per cent, petroleum. (5.) Turpentine (spirits) and 5 
per cent, petroleum. (6) Turpentine (spirits) and 2| per 
cent, petroleum. 

Adulteration No. 3 seems to be the most successful ; 
comparing the pure spirits turpentine and its mixture with 
10 per cent, petroleum spirit (benzine), no variation what- 
ever in color is perceptible to the eye, and, no difference can 
be detected in the odor. The other mixed samples show 
more or less dissimilarity in color and odor, but would 
easily deceive a casual observer. 

One of the methods of analysis is by the polarimeter. 
Polarimetry has been employed in the examination of all 
those substances having the property of polarizing light. 
For instance, the rays of light falling upon a sample of 
spirits of turpentine, give to the surface of the fluid a 
bluish, opalescent hue, because of polarized light. The 
13olarimeter, or polariscope, is an instrument devised to 
estimate the polarity of a given fluid, and the amount of 
polarity is expressed in degrees. Therefore a standard of 
polarization being ascertained for a pure sjurit, all devia- 
tions would indicate adulteration, or determine the origin 
of the spirit, whether it be Russian, French or American. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 229 

With reference to this beautiful test, Dr. Witthaus gives 
the following : 

" Polar hnetry. — A ray of light passing from one medium 
into another of different density, at an angle other than 
90° to the plane of separation of the two media, is deflected 
from its course or refracted. Certain substances have the 
power, not only of deflecting a ray falling upon them in 
certain directions, but also of dividing it into two rays, 
which are peculiarly modified. The splitting of the ray is 
termed double refraction, and the altered rays are said to 
"be polarized. When a ray of such x)olarized light meets 
a mirror held at a certain angle, or a crystal of Iceland spar 
peculiarly cut (a Nichols' prism), also at a certain angle, it 
is extinguished. The crystal which produces the polariza- 
tion, is called the polarizer, and that which produces the 
extinction the analyzer. If, when the polarizer and analy- 
zer are so adjusted, as to extinguish a ray passing through 
the former, c^ertain substances are brought between them, 
light again passes through the analyzer, and in order again 
to produce extinction, the analyzer must be rotated upon 
the axis of the ray to the right or to the left. Substances 
capable of thus influencing x)olarized light, are said to be 
optically active. If, to produce extinction, the analyzer is 
turned in the direction of the hands of a watch, the sub- 
stance is said to be dextrogyrous ; if in the ojiposite direc- 
tion, loewgyrous. The distance through which the analyzer 
must be turned, dej^ends U2)0n the peculiar power of the 
optically active substance, the length of the column 
interposed, the concentration, if in solution, and the 
wave-length *of the original ray of light. The specific 
rotary power of a substance is the rotation produced, 
in degrees and tenths, by one gram of the substance 
dissolved in one cubic centimetre of a non-active solvent, 
and examined in a column one decimetre long. The specific 
rotary power is determined by dissolving a known weight 
of the substance in a given volume of solvent, and observ- 
ing the angle of rotation produced by a column of given 



230 ' WILMINGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 

length. Then let ^= weight in grams of the substance 
contained in 1 c. c. of solution ; j the length of the column 
in decimetres ; « the angle of rotation observed ; and [^] 
the specific rotary power sought, we have 

a 
pi 

In most instruments monochromatic light, corresponding 
to tlie-D line of the solar spectrum, is used, and the specific 
rotary power for that ray, is expressed by the sign [a]u . 
The fact that the rotation is right-handed is expressed by 
the sign +, and that it is left-handed by the sign — . 

It will be seen from the above formula that, knowing 
the value of [a]D for any given substance, we can determine 
the weight of that substance in a solution by the formula 

" a " 



[«]d + I 

Another form of analysis is by ordinary distillation, and 
still another by treatment with sulphuric acid, and by 
other chemical tests/'^ 

In the American Journal of Fliarmacy for March, .1883, 
apj)ears a paper on the subject of "Turpentine — Its Nature 
and adulterations," by Professor Armstrong, copied from 
the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, which is 
so replete with interesting matter, that at the risk of 
appearing tedious with reference to its technicalities, I 
reproduce it in full. 

TURPENTINE : ITS NATURE AND ADULTERATIONS.l 

By Professor Henry E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Ju the course of investigations on the terpenes, camphor ant] allied 
compounds, in whicli I liave been engaged during the several years 
past, tlie opportunity has occurred of gradually collecting a number of 



*Attempts at adulteration in the country have been foiled even after passing the 
Wilmington inspection, by the custom of some shippers, of marking the original 
brand on the end of the bung stave, in addition to the shipping brand on the head, 
wlilch serves as a trace in case of need.— 

I From the "Journal of tlie Society of Chemical Industry," December 29, 1882. 



WiLMiNGTOlC, NORTH CAROLINA. S3l 

data which probably are of sufRcient technical value to find a place in 
the "Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry." 

Tlianks to the kindness of my friend, Mr. E. Phillips, of Messrs. 
lugall, Phillips & Co., I was enabled to examine average samples of 
most of the cargoes of turpentine landed by his firm during the years 
1877 to 1880, and thus to obtain a clear insight into the character of the 
commercial article. The high price of turpentine during the jjast few 
seasons has undoubtedly led dealers here to adulterate it, and it was to 
be feared that shipj)ers might not uniformly resist temj^tation ; there- 
fore, at the request of the above-mentioned firm, since the begin- 
ning of last year, I have regularly tested all cargoes landed atlheir 
wharves. 

The crude resinous exudation, formerly known as "turiDcntine" is 
no longer an article of commerce in this country, the obviously rational 
course being nowadays adopted of separating it into its constituents, 
"spirits of turpentine," or turpentine oil" and resin. On this account 
the name "turpentine" — vulgare "turps"— is now commonly employed 
as synonymous with the longer appellation, spirits or oil of turi^entinCj 
and it is in this sense that the term is employed in the paper. 

The commercial varieties of turpentine mainly consist of hydrocar- 
bons of the formula CioHie, of which certainly three distinct classes 
may be distinguished, viz.: terpenee, cilrenes, and a third of which 
Bylvestrene, the characteristic constituent of Russian turpentine, is the 
type. Under ierpenes, I include those varieties which boil at about 
156° C; under citrenea, those which boil at about 17(5° to 178°, such 
as are the chief constituents of the oils derived from various species of 
citrus. 

French Turjjeniine.— It is generally stated that French turpentine is 
tbe produce of a single species of conifer, Pinus maritima. It certainly 
is of remarkably uniform quality, judging from the almost constant 
rotatory power of samples which I have had occasion to examine at 
various times, and probably the projjerties of the terpene of which the 
French oil mainly consists are not very difTerent from those of the 
commercial article. Using any form of polarimeter which admits of 
the observation being made in monochromatic light — it is, perhaps, 
well to note that the Soleil form cannot be employed for the examina-' 
tion of turpentine— and operating with a 200 mm. column, the value 
of od is on the average about —60° to —61"*. 

American Turpentine. — American turi^entlne is said by Hanbury 
and Fliickiger ("Pharmacographia," 1st ed.) to be chiefly the produce 
of the swamp pine {Pinus australis), this and the loblolly pine {Pinus 
tceda) being, they say, the most important sources of turpentine. 

The following particulars regarding the separation of the hydrocar- 
bon from the crude resinous exudation will probably be of interest. I 



232 WILMINGTON, NOKTII CAROLINA. 

am indebted for them to Dr. Thomas F. Wood, of Wilraiugtou, N. C. ; 
they were written at the request of Mr. Charles Rice, American editor 
of the "Pharmacograiiliia :" 

"Turpentine is distilled in copper stills now. Formerly iron stills 
were used. All crude turpentine is distilled with water. A fifteen- 
barrel still (barrel weighs two hundred and eighty pounds) is charged 
early in the morning. Gentle heat is first applied until the mass is 
liquefied, and a coarse wire skimmer is used to remove the chips, bark, 
leaves and such other foreign substances as rise to the surface, the tem- 
perature meanwhile rising until 31G° F. is reached. All the accidental 
water (that contained in the crude turpentine as it comes from the 
forest) having been distilled off, a small stream of cold water is now 
let in, so that the heat is kept at or below 316° F*, the boiling point of 
oil of turpentine. The oil of turpentine and water now come over,' 
and the mixture is caught in a wooden tub. The distiller tests the 
quality of the flow from time to time in a proof-glass, and the distilla- 
tion is continued until the proportion of water coming over is 9 of 
water to 1 of oil of turpentine. At this stage the heat is withdrawn, 
the still-cap is taken off", and the hot resin is drawn off by a valvular 
cock at the side of the still near the bottom. This resin i:)asses through 
a strainer before it reaches the vat, to rid it of foreign substances, 
which may not have been previously removed by the skimmer. The 
yield of oil of turpentine from 'virgin dip' (the first exudation from a 
newly boxed tree) is about 5 gallons to the barrel, about 20 per cent. 
J being left in the resin, i since the removal of a larger proportion would 
darken the color, and consequently depreciate its value. The yield 
from 'yellow diii' (the runnings of the second and subsequent years) is 
about four gallons to a barrel. The yield from 'scrapings' (the inspis- 
sated gum from the tree facings) is about 2 to 3J gallons, according to 
age, and also to the proportion of trash which it contains." 

The separation of turpentine, by what is practically a steam distil- 
lation process, serves to exi)laiu the fact which, until I received the 
above information, had often surprised me, that the commercial 
article is uniformly free from products of the decom^wsition of resin by 
heat. 

Some idea of the importance of the turpentine industry will be 
gathered by inspection of the following table representing the number 
of barrels imported into London since 1872 : 

1873 44,495 1878 5(5,221 

1874 57,720 1879 42,960 

1875 57,093 1880 39,649 

1876 57,371 1881 03,724 

1877 49,500 1882 57,489 



1 The fact that the whole of the liyilrocarbon is not removed accounts for thd 
statement Konietiincs made, that "resin spirit" is ojitically active, that made Irom 
pnre resin, according to my experiments, being inactive. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAKOLINA. 233 

Probably about two-thirds of tlie entire quautity sent to this country is 
landed in Loudon. 

In so far as general properties are concerned, there is no practically 
distinguishable difference, other than in color, I believe, between 
various samples of the commercial article, but tested by the polarime- 
ter they vary considerably. 

The chief port of shipment is Wilmington, and most of the turpen- 
tine from this port, like that from Bordeaux, is of remarkably uniform 
quality. Thus out of thirty-five samples representing in all cases bulks 
of several hundred barrels, and in a number of cases bulks of from 
1000 to 2000 or more barrels, no less than twenty-eight samples varied 
in rotatory power (value of ao per 200 mm.), only within the very nar- 
row limits of 27° 6^ to 28° Sf)^ ; four samples had an inferior rotatory 
power of 24° 29' to 2G° W, and only three had a superior rotatory power 
of respectively 29° 3K, 31° 2F, and 32° 38'. 

That shipped from Savannah, on the other hand, is, as a rule, char* 
jicterized by a relatively low rotatory power, e. g. : 

Ex. 1569 barrels ao =22° 21' Ex. 1G9G barrels ao =19° 

Ex.1000 " aD=24° 9' Ex.1870 " ao =20° 33' 

Ex.1383 '• aD=20°22' Ex, 1200 " ao =21° 21' 

Ex.1571 " aD=19°39' Ex.1595 " ab=19°12' 

In the case of the last of these shipments, I had the opjiortunity of 
taking five samples, each representing about one-sixth of the bulk, 
which gave the following values : 21° 4', 21° 19', 18° 13', 17° 38', and 
20° 6', I have not been able to ascertain whether the turpentine ship- 
ped from Savannah is the product of a different tree, or whether the 
difference in climate between the two districts, of which Wilmington 
and Savannah are "centres," is the cause of the marked variation from 
what may be termed the Wilmington type. I trust that the publica- 
tion of this paper may, as one result, lead to my being favored with 
information on this point. 

Judging from the opportunities which have presented themselves 
for examining turpentine shipped from Charleston, the deliveries 
from this port would appear to comprise turpentine of somewhat 
high rotatory power, as well as those of the Wilmington and Savannah 
types : 

Ex. 1000 barrels ao =30° 24' Ex. 2179 barrels ao =24° 15^ 

Ex. " aD=30°38" Hx. " ao =19^ 

Ex. 250 " aD=33°33' Ex.1874 " a d =26° 42' 

Ex.1689 " 00=28° 15' Ex.1886 " ao =29° 39' 

Ex. 200 " aD=24° 

Other parts also furnish a somewhat irregular product ; the values, 
however, always lie within those already given, and in the majority of 



234 WILMINGTON, NORTlt CAROLIlCA. 

cases belong to the Wilmington type, Brunswick alone exhibiting a 
marked tendency to furnish a product of the Savannah type. 

Commercially, I believe, no distinction is made between the turpen- 
tine shipped from various American ports ; nor indeed is French tur- 
pentine, which is now a comparative rarity in the English market, 
regarded as having distinctive qualities. My observations on the 
wliole justify this practice: French turpentine is slightly less readily 
oxidized, absorbing oxygen somewhat less rapidly than American 
turpentine, but the difference is probably insufflcient to make itself 
felt in practice. 

Busslan Tur2oentine. — Commercially, this variety is of no importance, 
as it cannot well be used in paint or varnish-making, both on account 
of its unpleasant odor and of the extreme readiness in comparison with 
French or American turpentine with which it absorbs oxygen, form- 
ing a viscid oil ; its vapor appears also to j^roduce far more marked 
physiological effects than either of the ordinary oils, inciting violent 
headache in many individuals. 

It is the product of Plnus sylvestris, but I have not been able to ascer- 
tain whether the turpentine is specially collected, or is a mere by- 
product. According to one account which I have received, the waste 
timber is piled into heaps and a fire lighted ; the resinous matter which 
drains away is then collected and the turpentine extracted from it by 
distillation. 

Different samples are remarkably different in their optical character, 
as the following numbers show : 



OoCper 200 mm.)— =36° 29^ 


44° 11' 


40=^ 42' 


36° 7^ 


41° 0' 


46° 45' 


34° 18^ 


35° 28' 


80° 4' 


38° 58^ 


30° 4ii^ 


87° 5' 


32° 27^ 


35° 20' 


42° 10' 


31° 20' 


38° 6' 


39° 52' 


34° 8' 


45° 10' 


30° 10' 


39° 58' 


38° 4' 





Excepting the first four, all these samples were drawn from single 
barrels, and were obligingly furnished to me by Mr. Kingzett. 

Russian turpentine has been shown by Tilden, "Chem. See. Transl" 
1878-80, to consist of a peculiar CioHie hydrocarbon, the so-called /S^?- 
vesirene of Atterberg (Ber. 10, 1202), and of an isomerlde possessing the 
character of American turpentine. Sylvestrene, according to these 
authors, has a specific rotatory power of (ao)=19-o° (Atterberg), 19-6° 
(Tilden), that of the associated hydrocarbon being 30-3° (Atterberg). 
In conformation of the assumption that one of the constituents of 
Russian turpentine is probably identical with the main constituent of 



WILMINGTON, NORTH OAllOLINA. 235 

American turpentine, I may mention that I have separated from the 
latter by fractional distillation a portion having a rotatory power per 
200 mm. of no less than 49° 34^, and that on several occasions, by sub- 
mitting American turpentine to air oxidation, and afterwards distilling 
off the unaltered hydrocarbon by steam, I have obtained i:)roducts of 
considerably higher rotatorj' jDower than the original oils. I have also 
examined several samples received from Mr. Kingzett of the hydro- 
carbon carried over by the air current during the air oxidation of 
Russian turpentine. In most cases these have been almost free from 
sylvestreiie, and have exhibited a higher rotatory power than the 
original crude turpentine from which they were derived. 

The numbers above given fluctuate within wide limits, and are of 
interest as indicating that the proportions in which the two recognized 
constituents of Russian turpentine are present probably vary consid' 
erably, and also that other perhaps isomeric hydrocarbons are mixed 
with them ; they serve to confirm the idea that American turpentine 
is also a mixture of isomeric hydrocarbons. I may add that certain 
observations even lead me to think it not unlikely that the low dextro- 
rotatory power of American turpentine is due to the presence of a 
Ipevo-rotatory terpeue ; this would serve to explain the difference in 
optical character of products from different localities. The compara- 
tive study of American turpentine— and indeed generally of oils con- 
taining CioHie hydrocarbons — from this point of view, I think deserves 
attention ; variations in climatic and other conditions may have led to 
a gradual differentiation both in botanical and physiological character 
of a single parent stock. 

Method of Analysis.— The terms "petroleum spirit" and "petroleum 
oil" as commercially used do not admit of very precise definition ; for 
the purpose of this paper, I would therefore define petroleum spirit as 
being that portion of crude petroleum which may be volatilized by 
means of steam from water boiling at atmospheric pressure, and petro- 
leum oil as being the non-volatile i)ortion. Judged of by this defini- 
tion, commercial spirit and oil are, as a rule, more or less mixtures; 
the amount of spirit in the best, burning oil is, however, small. 

The presence of petroleum oil in turpentine is readily detected and 
the amount estimated by steam distilling. Unless it has been freely 
exposed to the air for a long time, but a mere trace of viscid matter 
remains on steam-distilling turpentine; on one or two occasions only 
have I met with samples containing a small amount of resin, which 
was left as a solid on distilling off the turpentine by a steam current. 
Should more than a few tenths of a per cent, of non-volatile matter 
remain, it is probable that petroleum is i^resent. This usuallj"^ betrays 
itself by the more or less marked blue fluorescence of the residue; but 
should this criterion fail, the behavior of petroleum and of the non- 



236 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

volatile product of the air oxidation of turpentine on digestion with 
dilute nitric acid will serve to differentiate them. The latter is readily 
oxidized and dissolved ; the former does not alter much in bulk, but 
apparently undergoes more or less complete nitration. I have never 
yet met with a sample containing resin oil, but it would not be difficult 
to detect it, as it is oxidized by nitric acid, and behaves in a most 
characteristic manner when triturated with a paste of slaked lime, 
forming the well-known grease. 

The detection and estimation of petroleum spirit is less readily 
effected. The method which I employ is based on the diflferent beha- 
vior of turpentine and paraffins with sulphuric acid. The paraffins, it 
is well known, are almost unaffected, whereas turpentine is polymer- 
ized and for the most part converted into substances of high boiling, 
point which do not volatilize in a current of steam. I say for the most 
part, because, as I have elsewhere stated, a certain amount of cymene 
and of a parafflnoiil hydrocarbon is always produced. Inasmuch as 
the amount of cymene so produced varies with the strength of the acid 
and the temperature, being larger the more concentrated the acid and 
the higher the temperature, it is important always to work under 
uniform conditions, at as low a temperature as convenient, and to use 
diluted acid. I employ two strengths of acid, a mixture of 2 vols, acid 
and 1 vol. water (2:1 acid) and a mixture of 4 vols, acid and 1 vol. 
water (4 : 1 acid). The turpentine— 500 c.c. is a convenient quantity — 
is placed with about one-fourth to one-third of its bulk of 2 : 1 acid in 
a well-stopped bottle, and the mixture is somewhat cautiously agitated. 
It soon becomes more or less heated, and as it is important to effect the 
polymerization at a temperature not much above the ordinary atmos' 
pheric temperature, the bottle is placed in cold water for a short time, 
After repeated agitation with the acid, the turpentine is converted into 
a viscid oil, and when this is the case, and no more heat is developed 
on continued agitation, the contents of the bottle is transferred to a 
sei)arating funnel, the acid layer is run off" and the oil poured into a 
flask ; the latter having been connected with a condenser and a steam- 
pot — an ordinary tin can answers admirably— all that is volatile is dis- 
tilled off. The distillate is mixed with about half its bulk of 4 : 1 acid, 
and treated in a precisely similar manner. 

The product from this second operation should only consist of a mix- 
ture of cymene and the paraffinoid hydrocarbon ; in bulk it should not 
be more than 4 to 5 per cent, of the original hydrocarbon. This is the 
result of a very large number of estimations; as little as 8 percent., 
however, has been obtained in experiments conducted with special 
care. If much more than about 5 per cent, be obtained, it is desirable 
to repeat the treatment with 4: 1 acid. 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 237 

If, from the result of this treatment, it appears probable that petro- 
leum spirit is present, the product is placed in a well-stoppered bottle i 
together with several times its volume of concentrated sulphuric acid, 
heated to 50° to 60°, with which it is violently agitated. This treatment 
is repeated if desirable (weak Nordhausen acid being with advantage 
substituted for the concentrated sulphuric acid), and the residual hydro- 
carbon is separated, steam distilled, and then measured. The amount 
thus obtained should not exceed from i to 1 per cent, of the original 
bulk of turpentine. This treatment with concentrated acid affords a 
check on the previous determination. 

If American petroleum spirit be thus treated it suffers comparatively 
little loss, so that the amount of hydrocarbon above 1 per cent, repre- 
sents the minimum amount of petroleum spirit in the turpentine. The 
spirit from Scotch petroleum contains a very much higher proportion 
of hydrocarbons alterable by sulphuric acid, and therefore cannot be 
satisfactorily estimated. 

To confirm the presence of petroleum spirit, the turpentine should 
be distilled. Petroleum spirit commences to distill at a temperature 
which may be above or below that at which turpentine boils, according 
to its quality, but always distills within comparatively wide limits of 
temperature; turpentine commences to boil near 160°, and almost 
entirely passes over below 180.° 

The presence of resin spirit also affects the boiling-point in a similar 
manner. Evidence of the i)resence of this adulterant is also aflfbrded 
by the increased yield of hydrocarbons on treatment both with 4: 1 
and concentrated sulphuric acid, as resin spirit also yields a cymene 
and paraffinoid hydrocarbon on treatmeni with 4 : 1 acid. The cymene 
from resin spirit being isomeric with that from turpentine, jiroof 
of the presence of resin spirit can be obtained by the detection of its 
cymene, but this is a somewhat delicate operation. 

Addendum,. — The method above described is also available for the 
analysis of solvent naphtha from coal tar and similar products ; it is, 
in fact, the only method which is capable of affording results which 
approach exactness. The problem is by no means so simple, however, 
as the coal tar product itself contains, besides benzene and its homo- 
logues, basic bodies, hydrocarbons alterable by diluted sulphuric acid 
and paraffins. Until, therefore, a considerable number of genuine 
samples have been examined, the method is chiefly of value as a quali- 
tative test. — The Pharm. Jour, and Trans., Jan. 20, 1888. 



238 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

CRUDE TURPENTINE. 

The decrease in receipts of Crude Turpentine, this season, 
is due mainly to the fact, that country distillers have 
bought and distilled a much larger proportion of the supply 
than in former years, for which, of course, they had to pay 
prices, at times, fully equal to the Wilmington quotations. 

The Black River, Long Creek and Coharie country, sup- 
lilies this market principally, and the average price of the 
year will compare favorably with that of former seasons. 

The estimated capacity of the Wilmington Distilleries is 
about ten times in excess of the supply: it being a matter of 
fact, that the Union stills alone, ran several years ago, more 
crude stuff in twenty-four, hours, than the present entire 
average daily receipts, which are divided among ten times 
the capacity of the Union Distillery. 

Within the last two years, much complaint has been made 
among buyers, respecting the quality of Crude brought to 
this market, which has greatly deteriorated, in consequence 
of the habit by many producers, of mixing the face or 
scrape product, with the dip turpentine, and which has 
resulted in reducing the average yield in the distillation of 
soft Turpentine, to five gallons Spirits from a barrel of 280 
pounds, while from a better article, one gallon more was 
formerly obtained. 

The yearly receipts of Crude Turpentine in this market 
for the years ending 31st March were as follows : 

1875-76 86,833 Barrels. 

1876-77 143,826 " 

1877-78 142,360 " 

1878-79 154, 985 " 

1879-80 132,375 

1880-81 92,101 

1881-82 87,486 

1882-83 68,574 '^ 



WILMINGTOTT, NORTH CAROLINA. 



239 



The average monthly price for the same time is given 
below : 



For Month of 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December .. 



1873 



1874 



1875 



2 83 
2 50 
2 23 
2 25 
2 32J^ 
2 60 ' 
2 60 
2 50 



50 

30 
50 
25 

IF 

55 
5o 



1876 



57K 
37k 
37^ 
55 " 

87k 
82k 
75 ' 
97U 
22k 
4TA 
00 



1877 



1878 



121^:2 
85 2 
62^! 2 
30 " 1 
17J4 1 
10 " 1 
05 !1 
27'4il 
37kl 
37k '1 
22k '1 
15 11 



75 

80 

80 

80 

85 

92^2 

821^^2 

85 2 



1879 



1880 



77U2 
82k 2 
67k 2 
60 12 
00 1 
60 12 

62k il 
75 2 
25 |2 
50 2 
67^12 



50. 



1881 1882 1883 



90 !3 87^;3 50 



47)4 1 821^3 50 '|4 00 
77k'2 72k 3 50 13 00 



25 2 60 
75 2 25 
55 !2 50 
87UJ2 90 
62k 1 2 85 
00 "i2 86 
521^1 3 021^ 2 75 
80 13 62k 3 00 
80 3 50 13 00 



4 00 
3 00 

2 75 

3 00 
2 75 
2 50 



SPIRITS TURPENTINE. 



From the tables appended it will be observed that while 
our receij)ts of spirits have materially increased, the 
demand, as indicated by the average price obtained for the 
crop, has also grown in larger proportion. The domestic 
consumption has steadily gained upon an uncertain pro- 
duction, which has hitherto barely supplied a general 
market, for some time past singularly free from organized 
speculation. 

It was thought in the early part of this season, that reliable 
indications of a much larger supply than last year's crop, 
would result in a lower range of prices; but notwithstanding 
the fact that the combined receipts of Wilmington, Charles- 
ton, Savannah and Brunswick alone showed an increase over 
last year's crop of about 66,000 casks, the value has 
steadily maintained a close comparison with the average of 
last season, which was generally admitted to have produced 
a short crop. 

The preparations for the incoming season, indicate a crop 
under favorable auspices, of about ten per cent, above last 
year's supply. It is estimated by some intelligent opera- 
tors, that Georgia may show an increase of perhaps 20 per 
cent. The reports from North Carolina and South Carolinaj 
indicate no increase. 



24r) 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 



There is no doubt with reference to a late crop. Some 
distillers estimate it five weeks later than usual, others four 
weeks. None, who are informed on the South Carolina and 
Georgia crop, consider it less than four weeks late. This is 
owing to unusually cold weather. On the 22nd of March 
we had a heavy fall of snow in Wilmington, which is almost 
unprecedented — and cold weather still continues at this 
date, (5th April), which may curtail the estimate of any in 
crease in the production. 

The supply in London, on the 1st of April, was unusually 
low hut the stock in the United States shows an increase 
over last year's figures, of 3,508 casks. 

The annual receipts of spirits turpentine for ten years 
past were as follows : 

1873-74 138,103 Casks 

1874-75 121,198 " 

1875-76 97,197 " 

1876-77 97,409 " 

1877-78 109,707 " 

1878-79 109,574 " 

1879-80 103,671 " 

1880-81 87,107 " 

1881-82 85,997 " 

1882-83 88,186 " J 

The average monthly price for ten years has been as 
follows : 



For Month of 1873 



January i i 59V^ 



February 

March 

April 

May 

ilune 

July 

August 

.September 

October 

November, 
December.. 



ml4 

57 

40 

4;V4 

41 

;?!» 

38 
37-M 



1874 



41^ 
4.5 " 
41 



32 

33^ 

ask 

S2% 



1875 



34% 

33»^ 

3214 

34 

30% 

30'/o 

29>| 

28% 

30% 

36% 

36 

33% 



1876 



34 
32 

35 

32 

29 

27 

27% 

27J4 

30>^ 

31 

a5 

42^ 



1877 



43 

38% 

35 

30% 

29 

28% 

28% 

31% 

32^ 

31 

29% 



1878 



29% 
27'^ 



26»4 
26% 
26% 
26^ 



1879 

26% 

2«)% 
28% 
25% 

2,5% 

2-1% 

26 

37 

39'4 

39% 



1880 



40^ 
4014 
44!| 

26% 



29% 
34% 
40% 
42-)S 
42% 



1881 



44 

42J4 
40% 

35y, 

37V, 
39^ 
43!4 
50 

48% 

oiy, 

51^ 



1882 



51% 

49% 

521^ 

56 k 

45)4 

41 

41% 

41 

41% 

48% 
47 



1883 



493^ 
49(4 
47iJ| 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 
ROSIN. 



241 



The receipts and business in rosin for a year past, have 
measurably decreased. This is probably owing to the 
abandonment of many old trees in the interior which failed 
to yield a profitable return, and to the limited number of 
new boxes cut at the beginning of the season, as well as to 
the fact, that notwithstanding the falling off in production, 
prices current throughout the crop year have ruled unu- 
sually low. Comparing last year with that of 1873, a 
decrease of nearly 40 per cent, in receipts is apparent, but 
a comparison with the years 1880 to 1882 shows a more 
favorable record. 

The receipts of rosin in Wilmington during the years 
ending 31st March, for ten years past, were as follows : 

1873 and 1874 707,349 barrels. 

1874 and 1875 605,521 '- 

1875 and 1876 540,730 '• 

1876 and 1877 524,967 '' 

1877 and 1878 538,259 

1878 and 1879 , 581,739 

1870 and 1880 568,188 " 

1880andl881 444,552 

1881 and 1882 454,917 

1882 and 1883 433,200 " 

The average morithly prices current for strained and good 
strained rosin for ten years past, are given in the following 
table : 



For Month of 



January.... 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. 
December.. 



18?3 



07!-^ 
07>^ 
50 

35 

37J4 

50 

45 

50 

32>^ 

20 



18^4 



2 12U 

2 12^ 
1 90 



2 25 
2 37}^ 
1 &5 

nvA 

1 95 

2 071^ 
2 00 

1 85 



1875 



72}^ 

a5 

35 
iVA 

40 



1876 



1 50 @1 
1 ■ 
1 



60 ®1 
50 (oil 
30 (fel 
22i4r4l 

36<<i(«U 
52i^ra)l 

65 m 

2 



54 

48>^ 
59 
63 
5.5 

27i^ 

20 

40 

57 

70 

10 



1877 



95 @,1 
69 @1 
723^(«U 
55 «*,1 
421^®! 
42>^@l 
2,VA@\ 
45 @1 
iiy,(n>X 

la-'Jc' 1 
iik.'"'i 



97^ 
72H 
771^ 
60 

^VA 

47>^ 
4114 
50 
521^ 

m 



187 



41^@l 43^ 
a5 (0)1 38% 
32>^(§)l 36!4 
30 @1 33% 
20%(i^l 2:^% 
17>^(ai 20 
17i^(($l 20 
13%@1 15 
20 (6^1 25 
20 @l 25 
nVM^ 20 
17i^(ffil 20 



242 



TTILMINGTON, IfOETH CAROLINA. 



For Month of 



1879 



1880 



1881 



1882 



1883 



January 'l W/i®l 

February '1 12U(5)1 

March 1 n\i®i 

April :1 02K@1 

May -1 m%®l 

June !l 073^@.l 

Juiy 1 05 @1 

August I 9S%ffil 

September ! 92U® 

October jl 17i^@l 

November jl 40 @1 

December I 1 



185^1 

Ofii^.l 
07'^ ;1 
121^! 1 
10 jl 
05% 1 
971^1 

4d il 

2.5 il 



25 @1 

18?^® 1 
le^Cal 
07i^@l 
02>^@1 
05 @1 
03%@1 
05 @1 
15 @1 
32i^@l 
35 (ffil 
40 @1 



285^1 
221^1 
20 ,1 
10 'l 
07^1 
10 1 
071^1 



41i^@l 

47y,m 

4(5;^®! 
50 @1 
70 @1 
74%@.l 
85 @2 
98V^(a2 
02k(ai2 
90 @1 
92i^@l 



45 11 
3-1^ 1 

50 11 
55 1 
1 

80 
061^ 

95 

9"H_ 



9714@2 0234 il 32Vi 



88M@l 9351 !l 
885|@1 93% 1 
88%@1 93% 
75 &l 80 
57U@1 67K 
47i^@l 56\Z 

&5 'm r' 



a5 



33%@1 43% 
32i|@l 38% 



;@i a5 

'@1 38 
@1 40 



It is probable that four-fiftlis of the rosin sold in this 
market, is of the common and medium grades. In the 
early part of the crop year, some very handsome rosin, 
grading N, and W G, and W W, is sold, but as the season 
advances, these grades become scarce, and the major part of 
business during the remainder of the year is in strained 
and good strained, with a small proportion of E F G H I 
K M. The standard adopted, is the same as was estab- 
lished several years ago by the iN'ew York Exchange, with 
Messrs. Beling, Nemeyer & Co. as supervising inspectors ; 
but frequent complaint has been made of irregularity in 
their type samples, which is a matter of serious importance 
to foreign shippers. A universal standard in glass types, 
would be of great benefit to the trade, and effectually settle 
the much vexed question of quality, which is so often raised 
in the fulfilment of sales for future delivery, or shipments 
upon contracts. An attempt w^as made some years ago, by 
a member of this Exchange, to procure standard samples of 
this character ; but the expense was ascertained to be too 
great for any practical benefit. The volume of business 
has since increased to such proportions, however, that a 
united effort by the New York, Wilmington, Charleston 
and Savannah Exchanges, would easily accomplish the 
desired result, at a small proportionate cost. 

About a year ago, the character of Wilmington ship- 
ments of common rosin suffered seriously in foreign 
markets, in consequence of the careless and sometimes 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 243 

criminal i')reparation for market ; a large proportion of 
" strained rosin " being mixed with sand and dross, ren- 
dering it quite unfit for tlie x)urposes of export to Eurox)e, 
where it is distilled into common oil. So great had this 
prejudice against Wilmington rosin become, that several 
importers refused to take our rosin at any price, preferring 
that of Charleston and Savannah at greater cost, rather 
than risk an uncertain quality where only 10 per cent, was 
inspected. This important matter was then brought to the 
notice of Wilmington receivers, who at once instituted 
means of stopping the fraudulent practice referred to, and 
who have since effectually overcome the difficulty, by closer 
inspection, and by the entire rejection of doubtful rosin. 

The same complaint has been made to us recently, of 
Charleston rosin, and it behooves the Exchanges, both 
North and South, to make more stringent rules of insi)ec- 
tion for the protection of consumers. 

TAR. 

The receipts of tar for the past season, have exceeded 
those of former years; the increase for this year being 
about seven per cent, above the receipts of last season. 

The domestic export of this article is steadily increasing, 
a considerable trade being done in cans^ which are shipped 
for the convenience of Western markets, and which seem 
to be in good demand from all quarters. The condition of 
the barrels, is somewhat better than in former years, but 
there is still great room for improvement. The large falling 
off in our foreign demand, is in a measure attributable to 
this long-continued neglect in preparing suitable packages 
for market ; although it is also stated, that the Russian tar 
of Archangel, in the White Sea, is much preferred for its 
quality, as well as for its superior packages, which are 
made of very thick, heavy wood, and seldom leak at all. 

A Glasgow broker informed me two years ago, that they 
then received about thirty cargoes of Archangel tar to one 



244 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA, 

of Wilmington shipment, although there was still a fair 
request for our product in Liverj)ool and Hull. 

The average monthly prices for the two last years, have 
been uncommonly good, as may be seen from the table 
appended with the receipts of this market for a number 
of years past ; and to this fact is no doubt owing the 
increased supply. 

The receipts in Wilmington since 1874, prior to which no 
record was made, were as follows : 

1875 and 1876 53,010 barrels. 

1876 and 1877 , 71,211 " 

1877andl87S 61,674 " 

1878andl879.. 78,116 " 

1879 ^nd 1880 45,623 '^ 

1880 and 1881 56,460 '« 

1881 and 1882 68,653 " 

1882 and 1883 73,598 '* 

The prevailing custom of buying tar by weight and sell- 
ing it by tale barrel for export, is most unsatisfactory to 
dealers, and it is hoped by many, that the terms of this 
trade will be more equitably adjusted by the Exchange. 

Average prices of Tar in Wilmington each month for ten years. 



For Month of 1873 



January , 2 65 

February 12 82^^ 

march i2 921^ 

April 13 00 

May '2 95 

June '3 173^ 

July !3 50 

August i3 37U 

September |2 82k 

October 2 47U 

November.. i2 32k 

December ^ 3734 



1874 



471^ 

45 

25 



30 
00 

40 
821^ 
92k 
87 1| 
If, ' 



1875 I 1876 1877 



1 70 
1 65 
1 35 
1 60 
1 45 
1 .50 
I77J^ 
1 80 
1 45 
1 45 
1 50 
1 65 



1 .50 U 
1 50 1 
I 62k il 
1 57k I 



1371^ 
1 o2k 
192k 
1 821^ 
1 42>^ 
15-1^ 
I 87^ 
1 80 



1878 



65 

65 

57k 

62k 

70 

80 

S2V^ 

773^ 

65 

55 

47K 



'57>/$ 

52k 

42k 

47k 

37k 

37k 

50 

80 

673^' 

65 1 

55 1 

47}4ll 



1879 



1880 



37k 
32^ 
20 
90 

77k 

® 
97!^ 
313^ 
67k 
07k 



1881 



1 25 1 
1 15 1 

I 22U 1 
132kjl 
1 25 1 
1 62k i I 
1 973^,2 
1 47k 2 
1 85 ' 2 



1882 1883 



45 2 07k 1 1 85 
7714 1 80 |1 80 
62 y,!! 80 



2 25 
2 40 
1 90 



72k 11 92k 

90 1 75 

523^ 1 90 

57^1 1 95 

423^:1 90 

2734'! 75 

17k: 1 9i'4 
323^ 1 9734 

151192k 



1 60 



WILMINGTON, NOIiTH CAROLINA. 245 

COTTON. 

It will be seen by an inspection of the table, for ten years, 
appended, that there has been a large and almost steady 
increase in the receipts of cotton at this port, from 39,737 bales 
in 1873-4 to 131,669 bales in 1881-2. The falling off in the 
receipts this year, is not a fair criterion of the business of 
this market. During the early part of the season, from 
the 1st of September to the middle of November, there 
were no freight vessels offering by sail, so that nearly all 
our receipts, up to that time, were forwarded by steamer, 
via New York, at rates which greatly hampered the trade— = 
especially in direct Liverpool business. This unusual scar^ 
city of shipping facilities not only established an unat^ 
tractive market, but led to the ultimate refusal of over 
10,000 bales of through cotton, from Augusta and other 
interior jioints, which formerly obtained an outlet by this 
port. 

The receipts from Augusta and other interior points for 
foreign shipment, were, last season, to the Champion Com. 
press, 4, 189 bales— this year they were only 2, 650 bales. To 
the Wilmington Compress last season they were 976 bales 
— this year there was not a bale received — showing a net 
decrease of 2,515 bales fom this source alone. It is there- 
fore fair to presume, that, under more favorable circum- 
stances, our business this season would have equalled that 
of last year. 

Cotton receipts in Wilmington for the years ending 31st 
March 1873-1883 : 

1873-74 43,070 Bales. 

1874-75 81,854 

1875-76 , 91,589 

1876-77 121,929 

1877-78 120,975 

1878-79 111,798 

1979-80 , 78,345 



246 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAEOLINA. 

1880-81 ..: 116,876 Bales. 

1881-82 137,733 '' 

1882-83 128,466 " 

During the year 1873-74 there was no record kept of the 
daily prices current in our market, but the following table 
shows the average price for each month, from January, 
1875, to the present time, April 1st, 1883. 



For Month of : 1875 



1876 



1877 



1878 



1879 



1880 



1881 



January 14 

February 'l4 3-ie 

March jl5 3-16 

April |l5J/8 

May I 

June ' 

July ' 

August I 

September 

October 12% I 

November 12 7-16 

December 12 3-16; 



12 7-16 

12^ I 
12 3-16 

12% 1 

10% I 

10 11-16 

I^Vh ' 

11 7-16 

10 3-16 



12 5-16110 
U 15-16 101% 
11 7-16 
10% 



9 15- 

10% 
10% 
11^ 
10 5-1610 7- 
10 ll-lel 9 3- 
10 7-16 S 13- 
1 0% I 8% 



101^ 
10^ 

11% 

10% 



-16 8 15-16 

9 9-16 
10 11-16 

16 12 I 

112^ I 
11% 
illVi ' 

16 1014 : 

16 10 3-16, 

16:111% I 

1121^ i 



1214 

12% 

ll?4 

11 15-16 

11>^ 

11 

10 15-16 
11 

11 13-16 
10% 

10 15-16 

11 5-16 



11 

10% 
10^ 
9 9-16 
10% 
10% 
11^ 
11 7 
11 

1114 
11% 



■16 



1882 



1883 



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11 -5-16! 9U 
U 9-16 1 9% 

11 11-161 V 

n-X ! 

11 13-16; 

12% 

12^ ' :. 

11 7-16 

10%-.- 1 

10% 

9 13-16* 



WiLMiN(JTON, NORTH CAEOLlJ^A. 



247 



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APPENDIX. 



With reference to the remarks upon our honored and 
distinguished dead in ^'Oakdale," the following "copy" 
was inadvertently omitted, and is appended herewith as a 
proof of what Wilmington people have done, and will yet 
do, in time of sore trial : 

Among those who, by services during the yellow fever 
season, have imposed upon the city of Wilmington a debt 
that can never be repaid, were Phineas W. Fanning and 
Isaac Northrop. 

The former held the post of Secretary and Treasurer — or 
an office with duties akin — in the Howard Association. He 
was the dispenser of such charity as a sorely impoverished 
people could place at his disposal. At any hour of the day 
or night, he gladly heeded the call to relieve the suffering. 
The scourge at last laid him on a bed which might prove 
the bed of death. Even then, he would refuse no one a 
hearing, and from his chamber there issued orders to feed 
the starving, or to supply with nurses and with medicine 
the sick and dying. 

Mr. Isaac Northroj) accompanied his family to a place of 
security, and then returned to the city in pursuance of a 
noble resolve to devote his energies, his life, if need be, to 
the friendless and the poor. It was a purpose in which 
self had no place— deliberate, well-considered and intelli- 
gently formed. He sought every opportunity for doing 



252 WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA. 

good. From his own stores the poor were furnished till 
abundant supplies were exhausted. All his thoughts, all 
his physical powers, were given to the work in hand. When 
he was compelled to cease from his labors to confront death 
itself, he was not taken by surprise. He had contemplated 
such a termination of his duties, and made full preparation 
for the event. His name deserves to be written high among 
the unselfish ones of earth, 



INFORMATION AND STATISTICS 



RESPKCTING 



WILMINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA 



BEING A REPORT BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE PRODUCE 

EXCHANGE. 

PRESENTED TO ITS MEMBERS, APRIL. 1883. 



Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by James Sprunt, in the office of 
the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



WILMINGTON, N. C: 

JACKSON & BBIili, WATEK-POWER PKESSES, 

188.S. 




.<i>